|Introduction||The Ants of Africa
Chapter 2 - Geography and History - Cameroun (The Cameroun Republic)
Summary of known collectors
Adametz (Stitz, 1910); Dr Bishmann (Santschi, 1915c); H Brauns (Mayr, 1895); R Buchholz (Mayr, 1901a, 1902); Chun'schen Deutschen Tiefseeexpedition - German Deepsea Expedition (Wasmann, 1904b); C A Collingwood (Bolton, 1973b, 1974a, 1976); L Conradt (Emery, 1899e, 1901a, 1920c; Forel, 1913e, 1914d; Santschi, 1924a; Stitz, 1910); A Dejean & colleagues (Dejean, 1991; Bolton, 1992, 2002; Taylor, 2005w); B de Mire (Bolton, 1974b); Faber (Stitz, 1910); Fickendey (Forel, 1913a); B L Fisher (Taylor, 2005w); von Knobloch (Stitz, 1910); H Krause (Viehmeyer, 1922); H Kutter (Kutter, 1976b, 1977); D Jackson (Bolton, 1981b, 1982, 1983, 1987; Jackson, 1984); Lenoir (Lenoir, 1994); B Malkin (Bolton, 1983, 1987); D McKey (McKey, 1984; Snelling, 1979a, 1992a; Taylor, 2005w); L von Muralt (Forel, 1910e); H Oldroyd (Bolton, 1980); D M Olson (Bolton, 2000); Preuss (Stitz, 1910; Santschi, 1924a); Dr A Reichensperger (Santschi, 1913c; 1914a, 1914c; 1919a); J Risbec (Bolton, 1980); E S Ross & K Lorenzen, E S Ross & R E Leech (Bolton, 1978c, 1980); v Rothkirch (Wasmann, 1918b; Santschi, 1920g, 1921c, 1926b); Scheunemann (Stitz, 1910); H Schultz (Stitz, 1933); L Schultze (Stitz, 1916); C Schumann (Mayr, 1895); Geo Schwab (Wasmann, 1917; Brown, 1952e; Bolton, 1974a); Prof F Silvestri (Santschi, 1914d); Y Sjöstedt (Mayr, 1896); Smend (Stitz, 1910); M Steele (Bolton, 1973b, 1980, 1987); G Terron (Terron, 1969, 1971, 1974, 1981; Bolton, 1975a, 1975b, 1976, 1980, 1983, 2000); Tessmann (Stitz, 1910); H Trautwein (Viehmeyer, 1914c); H Viehmeyer (Santschi, 1920g); Watts et al (Bolton, 2002); H Winkler (Forel, 1909b); Zenker (Stitz, 1909, 1910); F Zumpt (Santschi, 1937b).
Interestingly, there is an abundance of historic collections, many of the collecting areas are shown on Map 7. These include:- R. Buchholz, at Mungo-Fluss (Mungo River, 4° to 4°50'N, 9°30'E), in October 1874 (Tetramorium coloreum, Mayr 1901a), and Victoria (Polyrhachis decemdentata, Stitz, 1910), also Bojongo (Camponotus chrysurus ssp acutisquamis, Mayr, 1902). Hans (?) Brauns in March 1892, at Kriegsschiffhafen (Warship harbour), Cataulacus lobatus and Tetramorium camerunense (Mayr, 1895). Yngve Sjöstedt, who collected and described Orthoptera from Buea on the south side of Mount Cameroun (Mayr, 1896, also in Ragge, 1980) and Professor Dr. Reinhold Buchholz (Mayr, 1901a). L. Conradt at Mundame (4°35'N, 9°35'E), in 1895, including Polyrhachis platyomma (Emery, 1899b, 1921e; Stitz, 1910).
A little later were:- Leonardo Fea, at Mt. Cameroun; he also collected on Principé Island, in March 1901, and Annobon Island, Equatorial Guinea, in 1902 (Strumigenys zandala in Bolton, 1983; Ragge, 1980, included reference to Fea collecting Orthoptera in West Africa and Congo in 1902). R.P.E. Wassman, at Gr. Batanga, on the coast, just south of Kribi (2°56'N, 9°56'E), he also described species (see Hypoponera rothkirchi, collected by von Rothkirch at Soppo (4°10'N, 9°15'E) and Serrastruma ludovici, a junior synonym being Strumigenys rothkirchi, collected by von Rothkirch, in 1912, and described by Wasmann, 1918b). L. von Muralt, no location, collected Monomorium egens and Tetramorium muralti (Forel, 1910e), later he was in South Africa. Zenker at Yaoundé (Jaundestation, Cataulacus guineensis as C. sulcatus, in Stitz, 1910). Dr. Paul Preuss was at Barombi-Station (4°40'N, 9°25'E; Leptogenys camerunensis, in Stitz, 1910; he also collected Orthoptera there before 1890, see Ragge, 1980). A. Reichensperger at Molunda, or Molundu (2°5'N, 15°15'E, Psalidomyrmex reichenspergeri, Santschi, 1913c, and Camponotus immigrans, Santschi, 1921). E. Strand (1911) described Dorylus wilverthi ssp nigritarsis from Cameroun. Polyrhachis curta, as P. lyrifera, was collected at Bakossigeb by H. Schulz, 16.ii.1920 (in Stitz, 1933).
Others include:- F. Silvestri at Victoria in 1913 (in Santschi, 1914d). G. Schwab at Mbale Mayo to Ekingli (Cataulacus guineensis), at Batanga and Metet, in 1911(Monomorium bicolor, Santschi, 1926b). G (?) Tessmann, at Bibundi (4°15'N, 9°E, Tetramorium gabonense, 15-30.iv.1905; Polyrhachis militaris, as variety argentatus in Stitz, 1910). Dr. F. Zumpt, at Buea, Kamerunberg (Mt. Cameroun), see Tetramorium gabonense, 12.xi.1935, and Kumba, see Tetramorium aculeatum (as Macromischoides zumpti), 12-16.x.1935 (Santschi, 1937b). Thesing collected Camponotus caesar ssp imperator from Lomié (3°10'N, 13°40'E), and Paschen found Phasmomyrmex polyrhachoides at Longji (3°5'N, 10°E)(Wheeler, 1922).
The Reverend George Schwab was in the Cameroun for "many years" prior to 1916, according to Wheeler (1922, p. 625), where he investigated many armies of Dorylus and Anomma, for instance at Akono-Linga (3°55'N 12°45'E), Batanga (2°50'N 9°55'E) and Metet (or Metit, 3°45'N 11°35'E)
Modern collections include:- B. Malkin, Mt. Cameroun, at Buea slope, on the south side of Mt. Cameroun, and at Matute. M. Steele was at Mt. Cameroun, Jonga (Monomorium noxitum). Other locations include Ikiliwindi, Meyo and Okola (C.A. Collingwood). Yaoundé and a location 23 km east of Douala by E.S. Ross & K. Lorenzen, November 1966, see Tetramorium ictidum, also Kumba by Harold Oldroyd (Tetramorium edouardi).
Recent collections include those of Georges Terron (in 1968, 1969 and 1973) from Ottotomo (or Ototomo - a forest reserve, some 40 km south of Yaoundé), Ngoa-Ekelé, Mt. Nkolodon (900-1000m), Mt. Kala (820m) and the Yolé Massif, plus many specimens from 'no location' or simply 'near Yaoundé'. Terron himself, who was based at the University of Cameroun at Yaoundé, reported findings on the colony evolution and castes of Tetraponera anthracina in Cameroun (Terron, 1967, 1977). Unfortunately, there seem to be no publications giving information on his many collections of (mostly) leaf litter inhabitants and the labels on mounted specimens appear similarly to provide nothing more than a sample number (see, for instance, Bolton, 1983, for the many dacetine species which were new to science).
Bruneau de Miré worked on biological control of insect pests of coffee and cocoa during the 1960s-1970s (de Miré, 1966, 1969). The ant Wasmannia auropunctata was one of the controlling organisms for cocoa pests. Locations at which he made collections of other ants include Nkolbisson and Ntsama (in Bolton, 1974, 1976, 1983). Cocoa research stations in the country were Barombi-Kang, in South-West Province, and Nko'emvon (or Nkoemvone), in the South Centre Province, in the extreme south of the country (2°49'N, 11°7'E).
Later, in 1979-1980, Dorothy Jackson studied the ant mosaic in a cocoa plantation at Nko'emvon. Her sole published report names only a few common species (see Chapter 3 - Mosaics - Evidence from Cameroun - 1 for a summary of the mosaic findings) but indicates that others were collected (Jackson, 1984). A surprising number, in fact, are named in the taxonomic revisions by Bolton and thus are given under the individual species. She also made a collection at Korup (Ankylomyrma coronacantha, Bolton, 1981b).
Even more recently, Alain Dejean and his colleagues have made many studies in Cameroun. They report findings on the ant mosaic in oil palms and secondary rain forest (Dejean et al., 1993b, 1994a). Much of their work was in the Yaoundé area. Dejean et al. (1993a, 1994a) also report work at Matomb-Brousse and in forest at Bertoua. Lenoir & Dejean (1994) name sites, at which they observed Polyrhachis species, as being Ebodjié Forest (near Campo), Ndupé Forest (3°53'N, 10°41'E) , Ottotomo Forest (50 km south-west of Yaoundé, 3°39'N, 10°41'E), a track between Matomb and Pan Pan (3°53'N, 11°4'E) (respectively 125 km and 65 km from Yaoundé in the direction of Douala), and the campus of Yaoundé University. Another forest was at Kala (3°5'N, 11°21'E). From the description of the habitat of Polyrhachis militaris, the forests appear to be examples of dense equatorial forest with high trees; whereas the sites at Yaoundé and Batshinga were in "a particularly poor zone of savannah" (Dejean et al., 1993a).
In October-November 1991, a major study of mature, ancient forest canopy and the surrounding forest ecosystems was carried out at Akok in the Réserve de Campo, Southern Province (2°39'21" N, 9°54'41" E), led by Professor Francis Hallé & Olivier Pascal. Recently (September 2001) Professor Alain Dejean kindly sent me the original report (edited by Hallé & Pascal, 1992) and a set of the scientific papers that have been written from the studies. These I have attempted to summarise in Chapter 3 - Mosaics - Evidence from Cameroun - 2.
Latterly, Doyle McKey made studies on ants associated with the so-called ant-plants in Southwest Province during November 1989 (for instance at Big Ngwandi in the Rumpi Hills, and at Bayenti, north of Nguti; in Snelling, 1992). He had earlier worked in the Douala-Edéa Reserve south-east of Douala); discovering Cataulacus mckeyi (Snelling, 1979a), which he described as an obligate inhabitant of the ant-plant Leonardoxa africana (Caesalpinaceae) in Cameroun (McKey, 1984). The, now extensive studies are summarised in a separate subchapter on ant-plant associations.
Recently (July 2001), I was approached by Professor McKey about trying to identify ants collected in an extension of his work on ant-plant relations. This is described by Professor McKey in a letter - see McKey letter. I took up the opportunity and now have incorporated the identifications and, in a new development for this site, illustrations of the ants, which I made by scanning specimens at (mostly) 600 or 1200 dpi on a flat-bed scanner. The collections, by Gabriel Debout (who is studying Cataulacus mckeyi) and Ambroise Dalecky (Petalomyrmex phylax), are denoted "Cameroon 1" and so-on numerically. The collection sites for samples 1 to 115 were collected in tropical coastal forest between Edéa and Campo (except 109 & 110 collected in Yaoundé. Samples 116-122 were collected in the extreme south-east, and 123-131 came from Guinea-Sudan savannah near Poli. My identifications (as at January 2009) are at Cameroun 2001 ants list
In 2002, an analysis of data collected in 1992-93 in the Mblamayo Forest Reserve (3°23'-3°31'N, 11°25'-11°31'E) was published (Watts et al., 2002). The overall study used two replicate sets of plots, 3 km apart at Bilik and Ebogo, to examine the impact of forest clearance and differing methods of establishing tree plantations, in this instance of Terminalia ivorensis A. Chev. This tree, Ivory Coast Terminalia, and its close relative, Terminalia superba Engl. & Diels, are important timber trees, indigenous to West Africa. The area and the different ways of forest management examined to compare the impact on the subsequent plantation were described by Watt et al. (1997). Mblamayo Forest Reserve was described by Eggleton et al. (2002) as - "Semi-deciduous tropical pre-montane forest on gently undulating plateau. Reserve management plan includes clonal forestry, experimental short-fallow subsistence agriculture, with some near primary and old growth secondary stands". This paper has a useful description of the whole "humid forest zone of Africa" which stretches from Guinea in the west to Uganda in the east, with two large contiguous areas of continuous forest (the Guinea and Congo forest blocks). The findings are summarised in Chapter 3 - Mosaics - Evidence from Cameroun - 3.
A compilation of the results from all the modern collections and survey is given in the Cameroun Summary Table.
©1998, 2001, 2003, 2006, 2009, 2012 - Brian Taylor CBiol
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