The Ants of Africa
Genus Monomorium
Monomorium pharaonis (L.)

pharaonis-complex

Monomorium pharaonis (L.)

return to key return to listIran list{link to the Hymenoptera Name Server} Type location Egypt (Formica pharaonis, Linnaeus, 1758: 580, worker; Mayr, 1865: 90, male; André, 1883a: 338, queen; Forel, 1891b: 164, all forms) - no type images on Antweb (February 2015)
junior synonyms
antiguensis (Formica antigueensis, Fabricius, 1793: 357, worker) from West Indies, Antigua - no images on Antweb (February 2015)
contigua (Myrmica contigua, F Smith, 1858b: 125, queen) from Sri Lanka - see http://www.antweb.org/specimenImages.do?name=casent0102682
domestica (Myrmica domestica, Shuckard, 1838: 627, worker & queen; F Smith, 1851: 119, male) from Great Britain - no images on Antweb (February 2015)
fragilis (Myrmica fragilis, F Smith, 1858b: 124, worker) from Singapore - see http://www.antweb.org/specimenImages.do?code=casent0102330
vastator (Myrmica vastator, F Smith, 1857a: 71, worker) from Singapore - see http://www.antweb.org/specimenImages.do?name=casent0008625
minuta (Atta minuta N.S., Jerdon, 1851: 105,worker & queen) from India- no images on Antweb (February 2015)
(see Bolton, 1995) .


The Linnaeus (1758) description is at {original description}. Mayr's (1865) description of the male is at {original description}. Jerdon's (1851) description of minuta is at {original description} Arnold (1916: 228) gave a fuller description, based apparently on the F Smith descriptions (1851 & 1855), this is at {original description} Bolton's modern description (1987) is at {original description}.


{Monomorium pharaonis} Nigeria specimen (Monomorium prossae/?pharonis in Taylor, 1980a: 29). WORKER. TL 2.52 mm, HL 0.57, HW 0.44, SL 0.49, PW 0.28
Colour yellow-orange, apex of gaster dark. Head, alitrunk and pedicel finely and densely reticulopunctate. Erect hairs relatively long and moderately abundant on the head and gaster. Antennae 12-segmented. Sides of head convex in front view with a smooth curve to a slightly convex occipital margin.
Collected in buildings and "sweeping grass" at the Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria, Idi Ayunre, by B. Bolton.


{Monomorium pharaonis}Others TL 2.2-2.4 mm (Bolton, 1987: 356, illustrated, full-face view, body profile).

Bernard (1952) described it as cited from all of West Africa, even in forest. In Guinea it was abundant at Camp IV (forest, 1000m) of Mt. Nimba; and in the leaf litter sampling of the north-east forest area of the massif (Villiers). Apparently, Lamotte found it near villages and in savanna, and as the related members of the group Pharaophanes were essentially African, there were grounds for believing the ubiquitous pharaonis has its origins in the West African forests, not from Egypt or the Indies as other authors had suggested. (note Bolton, 1987, discarded the name Pharaophanes as nomen nudum).

In Ghana it was found on cocoa mistletoe by Room (1975). Bolton (1987) gave findings from Kibi (D. Leston), Mole Game Reserve (J.C. Grieg), CRIG (A.H. Strickland) and Aburi (P.M. Room). It was described as widespread by Belshaw & Bolton (1994b), who found 17 workers from leaf litter samples at six locations in the semi-deciduous forest zone. Interestingly, Strickland (1948) described it as tending the mealybug, Planococcoides njalensis, but only in the laboratory.

A very successful tramp species with a world-wide distribution, including in heated buildings in temperate countries (Bolton & Collingwood, 1975). Bradshaw & Howse (1984) described it as a mass-recruiting species, using glandular secretions to repel larger ant species.


Oxford University Museum specimens

Monomorium pharaonis
B Taylor det.
Mali
David King
King 101
9.ii.2009
Bamako
12.37.11° N
08.0056° W
323 m asl; residential area near Niger River
1
{album}
Monomorium pharaonis
B Taylor det.
Ghana
S Sky Stephens
06G0023
2006
In personal collection of S Sky Stephens
1
{album}
Monomorium pharaonis
B Taylor det.
Ghana
S Sky Stephens
06G0053
2006
In personal collection of S Sky Stephens 1
{album}
Monomorium pharaonis
B Taylor det.
Cameroun
G Debout & A Dalecky
Cameroon 96

10.iv.2001
Kribi
2°56' N
9°55' E
from bread and black chocolate bait on soil
worker & queen
2
{album}
Monomorium pharaonis
B Taylor det.
Cameroun
G Debout & A Dalecky
Cameroon 95

15.iv.2001
Kribi
2°56' N
9°55' E
with Solenopis geminata in herbaceous vegetation about 20 cm tall (garden of the catholic mission)

1

Monomorium pharaonis
B Taylor det.
Cameroun
A Fotso Kuate
Sample 64

28.vii.2010
Nko’ondo
03°54'30" N
11°25'58" E


1
{album}
Monomorium pharaonis
B Taylor det.
Cameroun
A Fotso Kuate
Sample 29

31.vii.2008
Balangue
03°54'30" N
11°25'58" E


1
{album}
Monomorium pharaonis
B Taylor det.
Central African Republic
P Annoyer
DA

12.i.2005
Dzanga-Sangha
04°22'19.4" N
18°35'49.7" E
360 m; Camp 1; 13.10.2008 17h30-3h;
A la base de l'Ayous (Triplochiton scleroxylon, Sterculiaceae) à 50 m du Camp

1
{album}
Monomorium pharaonis
B Taylor det.
Central African Republic
P Annoyer
DH-01

20.i.2005
Dzanga-Sangha
04°17’54.9" N
17°22’16.7" E
Forêt de N’goto direction Bambio, Fauchage, 16h30

1
{album}
Monomorium pharaonis
B Taylor det.
Central African Republic
P Annoyer
Di-01

20.i.2005
Dzanga-Sangha
03°55’13.2" N
16°36’46.1" E
U.V : 2h-6h, après Sefka (entre Bambio et croisement Nola/Berberati), dans layon forestier;
from on a reduviid bug; collected in forest, 1st hour of the morning; 536m asl

1
{album}
Monomorium pharaonis
B Taylor det.
Congo
E Zassi
03-t-2-1

8-9.xi.2007
Lésio-Louna
03°1613.9" S
015°28'21.2" E
Gallery Forest; 24h pitfall trap

1
{album}
Monomorium pharaonis
B Taylor det.
Egypt
M R Sharaf

13.vi.2003
Abuzabal
30°15'N
31°21'E
Qaliobia
1
{album}

{Monomorium pharaonis}The photomontage is of a worker from Congo, Réserve de Lésio-Louna, S 03°16'13.9" E 015°28'21.2"; n sp 14; pitfall trap 3, t 1.1; 8-9.xi.2007; Gallery Forest; collected by Eric Zassi.


{Monomorium pharaonis}The photomontage is of a worker collected in Cameroun - south-western tropical coastal forest area between Edéa and Campo (McKey Wolbachia project, Cameroon 96).


{Monomorium pharaonis}The photomontage is of a queen collected in Cameroun - south-western tropical coastal forest area between Edéa and Campo (McKey Wolbachia project, Cameroon 96)

{Monomorium pharaonis}The photomontage is of a specimen from Ghana, collected by S Sky Stephens, 2006.


Contents
© 2007, 2008, 2009, 2011, 2012, 2015, 2017 - Brian Taylor CBiol FRSB FRES
11, Grazingfield, Wilford, Nottingham, NG11 7FN, U.K.

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