Contents Contents The Ants of Egypt
Monomorium pharaonis (L.)


Monomorium pharaonis (L.)

return to key  Type location Egypt (Formica pharaonis, Linnaeus, 1758: 580, worker; Mayr, 1865: 90, male; André, 1883a: 338, queen; Forel, 1891b: 164, all forms) - no type images on Antweb (March 2019)
junior synonyms
antiguensis (Formica antigueensis, Fabricius, 1793: 357, worker) from West Indies, Antigua - no images on Antweb (March 2019)
contigua (Myrmica contigua, F Smith, 1858b: 125, queen) from Sri Lanka - see
domestica (Myrmica domestica, Shuckard, 1838: 627, worker & queen; F Smith, 1851: 119, male) from Great Britain - no images on Antweb (March 2019)
fragilis (Myrmica fragilis, F Smith, 1858b: 124, worker) from Singapore - see
vastator (Myrmica vastator, F Smith, 1857a: 71, worker) from Singapore - see
minuta (Atta minuta N.S., Jerdon, 1851: 105,worker & queen) from India- no images on Antweb (March 2019)
(see Bolton, 1995) .

The Linnaeus (1758) description is at {original description}. Mayr's (1865) description of the male is at {original description}. Jerdon's (1851) description of minuta is at {original description} Arnold (1916: 228) gave a fuller description, based apparently on the F Smith descriptions (1851 & 1855), this is at {original description} Bolton's modern description (1987) is at {original description}.

{Monomorium pharaonis} Nigeria specimen (Monomorium prossae/?pharonis in Taylor, 1980a: 29). WORKER. TL 2.52 mm, HL 0.57, HW 0.44, SL 0.49, PW 0.28
Colour yellow-orange, apex of gaster dark. Head, alitrunk and pedicel finely and densely reticulopunctate. Erect hairs relatively long and moderately abundant on the head and gaster. Antennae 12-segmented. Sides of head convex in front view with a smooth curve to a slightly convex occipital margin.
Collected in buildings and "sweeping grass" at the Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria, Idi Ayunre, by B. Bolton.

{Monomorium pharaonis}Others TL 2.2-2.4 mm (Bolton, 1987: 356, illustrated, full-face view, body profile).

A very successful tramp species with a world-wide distribution, including in heated buildings in temperate countries (Bolton & Collingwood, 1975). Bradshaw & Howse (1984) described it as a mass-recruiting species, using glandular secretions to repel larger ant species.

{Monomorium pharaonis}From Egypt, what appears to be pharaonis was illustrated by Savigny (Audouin, J.-V. 1825-27: Plate 20 Fig 18).

{Monomorium salaomonis}From Egypt, what appears to be a salomonis queen was illustrated by Savigny (Audouin, J.-V. 1825-27: Plate 20 Fig 18).

Sharaf list - material examined: type form - El-Sabah Emarat, 50 km Ismailia-Cairo, 14.iii.2002 (9); Cairo, 14.viii.2002 (12); 20 km Alexandria-Cairo, 8.iv.2001 (16); Gebel Asfar (Qalyubiya), 29.iv.2003 (19); El-Nagdein (Siwa) (3); El-Karnak temple (Luxor), 4.iii.2003 (5); Khniza (Nubaria), 21.ix.2002 (11); Zaranik (North Sinai), 11.viii.2000 (7); Alag, 27.ii.2003 (17); Kharga oasis, 7.xi.1997 (3); El-Taifa (Kafr El-Sheikh), 27.viii.2003 (14); Mafareq (South Sinai), 12.vii.1998 (2); Hawamdyia (Giza), 2.xi.2002 (2); Zaranik (North Sinai), 30.viii.2000 (3) (SHC); Mafareq (South Sinai), 12.vii.1998 (1) Leg.M.R.Sharaf; Mafareq (South Sinai), 10.viii.1998 (1) Leg.M.R.Sharaf. (ASUC); Giza, 5.i.1953 (CUC).

sommieri form - material examined: Ein Sokhna, 13.ii.1999 (1); Wadi El-Arish, 14.iii.2002 (8); El-Sabah Emarat, 50 km El-Arish -Ismailia road, 14iii.2002 (12); Salhyia, 14.iii.2002 (5); El-Tor (South Sinai), 9.iii.1999 (3) (Leg. M.S.Abdel-Dayem); Salhyia, 14.iii.2002 (13); Wadi El-Rayan (Faiyum), 7.xi.2001 (1); Ismailia, 13.xii.1997 (5); Zaranik (North Sinai), 11.viii.2000 (5); Abu-Madi, Zaranik (North Sinai), 6.v.2003 (5); Wadi El-Arish, 14.iii.2002 (5) (SHC); Sahab (South Sinai), 18.xi.1999 (2) Leg.M.R.Sharaf; Sahab (South Sinai), 10.viii.1998 (1) Leg.M.R.Sharaf; Wadi El-Arbaein, St.Catherine (South Sinai), 1.iv.1998 (1) Leg.M.R.Sharaf (ASUC).

Mohamad (1979) thesis had Burg El-Arab (Alexandria), 17.iv.1952; Rosetta, 19.iv.1952; Wadi Degla (Helwan), 4.viii.1952; 16.iii.1955; Wadi El-Tih (Sinai), 26.ii.1954; Marsa Matrouh, 20.viii.1955; Kom Oshim (Fayium), 28.ii.1975; Heliopolis, 12.iv.1975; Wadi El-Natroun (Western desert), 5.x.1975; Mariut, 16.x.1975; El-Zagazig (Nile Delta), 1.vii.1975; Ismailia, 1.viii.1975; Damietta, 15.viii.1975; Siwa oasis (Western desert), 9-4.iv.1976; Ras Gharib (Red Sea), 22.i.1978; 23.i.1978; Kom Hamada, 3.ii.1978; Dakhla oasis (Western desert), 1-4.ii.1978; Baharyia oasis (Western desert), 4,7.iii.1979 (Coll.Ain.) Giza, 5.i.1953 (Coll.Car.)

Ecological note (M Sharaf) - this species was collected from an area cultivated with palm trees in Alag, Qalyubiya; and was present in large numbers under a layer of fallen leaves on the ground; it was also collected from Aswan, near the high dam, under graminae plants.

Oxford University Museum specimens

Monomorium pharaonis
B Taylor det.
M R Sharaf

{Monomorium pharaonis}The photomontage is of a worker from Egypt, Abuzabal; collector M Sharaf.

{Monomorium pharaonis}The photomontage is of a worker collected in Cameroun - south-western tropical coastal forest area between Edéa and Campo (McKey Wolbachia project, Cameroon 96).

{Monomorium pharaonis}The photomontage is of a queen collected in Cameroun - south-western tropical coastal forest area between Edéa and Campo (McKey Wolbachia project, Cameroon 96)

©2005, 2006, 2015, 2019 - Brian Taylor CBiol FRSB FRES
11, Grazingfield, Wilford, Nottingham, NG11 7FN, U.K.