Introduction The Ants of Africa
Chapter 2 - Geography and History - East Africa (Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania & Uganda) also Mozambique

Colonial era geography

In reviewing the original descriptions now (late-2003) made available by the efforts of Donat Agosti, I realised that the geography as understood in the late-19th century was not fully comprehended by modern researchers. For instance, in his great Catalogue, Bolton (1995) has a few instances of type location given as "SUDAN" - this modern students would take as being the large Republic of Sudan, in north-east Africa. Most notably these relate to findings in Santschi (1930a) from collections by Andrieu, near Koulouba (13°29'N 9°08'W, a 100 km or so north-west of Bamako), that is in modern Mali. In the nineteenth century, however, the term "Sudan" also applied to the huge area of French dominated north Africa, stretching from the Atlantic right across to the British-dominated territory, now the modern Sudan.

In my possesssion I have a copy of the Eton Compendium of Geography, edition published around January 1856, by C.G.N. of King's College, London; the first edition, by Rev. Aaron Arrowsmith, having been published in 1831. I have reproduced the relevant pages as a pdf which can be read by using the link {original description}.

From the descriptions, however, it will be obvious that almost nothing was known by Europeans of any part of East Africa away from the coastal area. David Livingstone, for instance "discovered" Victoria Falls in 1855; and it was not until 1858 that John Speke became the first European to see Lake Victoria.

South Sudan

South SudanWith the independence in 2011 of what were the pre-colonial southern provinces of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, as South Sudan, I now (2012) included the ant findings in this section, although the species from the southern forests have a closer affinity with the popualtions of the Congo Basin.

Summary of known collectors
N A Weber (Bolton, 1976, 1980, 1981a, 1983, 1987; Brown, 1952; Weber, 1941a, 1942a, 1943c, 1952).
Some by Awatif Omer to be listed.

South-western montane areas

Neal A. Weber (1942a, 1943c) undertook a study of the Imatong (or Lolibai) Mountains of south-west Sudan. Much of the ant fauna he described is of the Congo Basin faunal group. Link


Summary of known collectors
Duke of Abruzzi (Stadelmann, 1898); C Alluaud (Santschi, 1914b); G Arnold (Arnold, 1954; Bolton, 1976); T Bakin (Santschi, 1933b); E Bayon (Menozzi, 1924b); R P Benoit (Forel, 1909b); J C Bradley (Bolton, 1980); G D H Carpenter (Bolton, 1974a, 1987, 2002; Santschi, 1933b); R P Celis (Bolton, 1981a); H S Darling (Bolton, 1973b); WA Dogiel & J J Sokolow (Karavaiev, 1931d); F W Edwards (Bolton, 1980); Erne & Cuccudoro (Bolton, 2000); G O Evans (Bolton, 1976, 1981a, 1983); D S Fletcher (Bolton, 1973b, 1980, 1982, 1986a); J Ford (Bolton, 1973b); C C Gowdey (Bolton, 1973b; Santschi, 1933b; Wheeler, 1922); M Grabham (Bolton, 1973b); G L R Hancock (Donisthorpe, 1945c); H Hargreaves (Bolton, 1973b, 1980; Santschi, 1923e, 1926b, 1933b); G H E Hopkins (Bolton, 1973b); H Johnston (Bolton, 1974b); R Lucius (Bolton, 1981b); D McNutt (Bolton, 1987); J E M Meller (Donisthorpe, 1931b); E Millar (Bolton, 1973b); Musoke & Banage (Bolton, 1975b); S A Neave (Bolton, 1973b, 1974a); E S Ross & R E Leech (Bolton, 1975, 1976, 1980, 1983); G Salt (Brown, 1954k); Schubotz (Stitz, 1911b); Heinrich Schultze (Forel, 1912j); M Snizek (Taylor, 2005w); S Uehara (Taylor, 2005w); N A Weber (Bolton, 1976, 1980, 1981a, 1983; Brown, 1952e, 1954k; Weber, 1949b, 1950a, 1952); F Werner (Wheeler, 1922 list); R M C Williams (Bolton, 1987); G F de Witte (Santschi, 1939a); Lake Rudolf Expedition (Bolton, 1981b).


Forel (1912j) described ants collected by Heinrich Schultze, vice-consul in Entebbe. Schultze studied and photographed the activity of "Treiberameisen" or Driver Ants in the Botanic Garden there in 1911-192, if not earlier, perhaps even back in 1906.

Santschi (1926b) - H Hargreaves, near Kampala,; also 9.iii.1922, working on sleeping sickness.

Menozzi (1933a) reviewed ants collected by E Bayon from Uganda and particularly Sesse Island in Lake Victoria. Menozzi recorded a total of 64 species of ant, of which five species, one subspecies and one variety were new to science. Mainland areas included - Kabulamuliro and Bukossa (between Entebbe and Kampala); Kitume (NE of Kampala); Koba on the banks of Lake Albert; Bugala and Kome among the Sese Is;

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Summary of known collectors
Allen & Brooks (Bolton, 1974b); C Alluaud (Santschi, 1910g, 1911c, 1912d, 1914b, 1915c, 1919h, 1925c); C Alluaud & R Jeannel (Santschi, 1913b, 1913e, 1914b, 1924a, 1928f, 1930a); G Arnold (Arnold, 1954; Bolton, 1976; Santschi, 1920d); Bavagnoli (van Boven, 1972); Dr Bayer (Forel, 1913h, Santschi, 1926b); Bondroit & Lt Borgerhoff (Santschi, 1933b); V Bottego (Emery, 1896i); H E Box (Bolton, 1987); H Brauns (Mayr, 1901b); E S Brown (Bolton, 1987); L F Brown (Bolton, 1973b, 1975a); W L Brown (Bolton, 1980); G D H Carpenter (Bolton, 1973b); N M Collins & M Ritchie (Boloton, 1987); J Darlington (Bolton, 1981b, 1987, 1993); v d Decken (Gerstaecker, 1871); M Deeble & V Stone (Taylor, 2005w); Demarchi (Santschi, 1912b); W A Dogiel & J J Sokolow, Dr Fernique (Santschi, 1924a); Mrs V Fey (Arnold, 1953); W H Gotwald (Gotwald, 1974, 1976); Gregory (Bolton, 1973b); Hildebrandt (Forel, 1886f; Stadelmann, 1898, 1908); B Hölldobler (Bolton, 1981a); H C Hopton (Bolton, 1973b); M E Irwin & E S Ross (Bolton, 1980); R Jeannel & P A Chappuis (Santschi, 1935b); T H E Jacobson (Santschi, 1937a); H C James (Santschi, 1933b); N L H Krauss (Bolton, 1980); M G Leplage (Bolton, 1981a); A Loveridge (Bolton, 1974a, 1974b); V Mahnert & J-L Perret (Bolton, 1982, 1987, 1993; Taylor, 2005w); F Meneghetti (Brown, 1952e); Le Moult ((Santschi, 1918b); S A Neave (Bolton, 1981b); K Njukiine (Bolton, 1982); G Nyamasyo (Arnold, 1955; Bolton, 1973b, 1976, 1980, 1981a, 1987); Saverio Patrizi (Patrizi, 1946, 1947, 1948; Brown, 1950b; Bolton, 1983; Weber, 1949b); R H Le Pelley (Santschi, 1933b, Bolton, 1987); W C H Peters (Forel, 1894b, Gerstaecker, 1871); H Prell (Forel, 1911d); A Reichensperger (Santschi, 1918c, 1920b); O W Richards (Bolton, 1980); E S Ross & R E Leech (Bolton, 1975a, 1976, 1978, 1980, 1981a, 1981b; Taylor, 2005w); Baron Maurice de Rothschild (Forel, 1907c); J Saiboku (Taylor, 2005w); W Sands (Bolton, 1987); Shirati (Viehmeyer, 1922); G H van Someren (Bolton, 1973b); M Steele (Bolton, 1973b); A E Stubbs (Shattuck, 1991); Stuhlmann (Emery, 1920c); Terrique (Santschi, 1910g); A Voeltzkow (Forel, 1907g); N A Weber (Bolton, 1976, 1980; Weber, 1943c, 1949a, 1952, 1964); P v d Werff (Bolton, 1981a); C West (Bolton, 1987); F X Williams (Bolton, 1974b); Zimmer (Forel, 1911d).


Patrizi (1946, 1947) related how, while he was interned as a prisoner of war, he made a few collections in Kenya.

Viehmeter (1923) refers to Collections by Sjöstedt -

"Zweitens möchte ich hier an Akaziengallen und Ameisen erinnen, worüber Sjöstedt bereits eine meisterhafte und eingehende Beschreibung und Schilderung auf Grund eigener Boebachtungen in den ostafrikanischen Steppen gegeben hat (Wissenschftl. Ergebn. d. schwedischen zoolog. Expedition nach dem Kilimandjaro, dem Meru u. d. umgebenden Massaisteppen Deutsch-Ostafrikans 1905-1906, 2 Bd., 1910, Hymenoptera, pp. 97 bis 118, t. 6 bis 8).

The ants were examined by Mayr (1907b) - unavailable.

Forel (1911d) reported ants collected by Heinrich Prell, from
" Afrique Anglaise [Kenya] at Nairobi 1°17' S 36°50' E; Bura 3°30' S 38°18' E; Moschi 3°21' S 37°25' E"' Other locations listed under individual species included Mombasa, Buiko, Monga

Santschi (1926b) - Dr Bayer at Kerio River,

Santschi (1935b) reported collection by R Jeannel & P A Chappuis in 1932-33, in the Mt Elgon area and then in the Turkana Desert west of Lake Rudolph, going north into the interior of Omo, bordering on southern Ethiopia


Summary of known collectors
C Alluaud (Santschi, 1910g, 1911c, 1914b, 1923e); C Alluaud & R Jeannel (Santschi, 1913e, 1914b, 1915c, 1924a, 1925c, 1926b, 1928d); G Arnold (Santschi, 1928f); P Basilewsky & N Leleup (Bolton, 1981a); K Bock (Bolton, 1983; Brown, 1950b); Bornemisza (Forel, 1907a); H Brauns (Forel, 1907a; Mayr, 1895; Stadelmann, 1898); E S Brown & L F Brown (Bolton, 1973b); B D Butt (Santschi, 1937a); G D H Carpenter (Bolton, 1982); B Cooper (Bolton, 1980); Deville (Forel, 1909b); Fr Eichelbaum (Wasmann, 1917); D V Fitzgerald (Bolton, 1982); Dr Gerard (Santschi, 1928d); C C Gowdey (Bolton, 1973b); Vasily Grebennikov (Taylor, 2005w); D Griffiths (Bolton, 1987); J Halstead (Bolton, 1982); Hildebrandt (Forel, 1886f); M E Irwin & E S Ross (Bolton, 1982); K Jauer (Viehmeyer, 1922); Kadt (Santschi, 1924a); K Katona (Forel, 1907a; Szabo, 1909); Kemp (Kemp, 1951); N L H Krauss (Bolton, 1973b, 1980, 1982); W A Lamborn (Bolton, 1973b; Lamborn 1920a; Longstaff, 1911); Langenburg (Viehmeyer, 1914c); A/G Loveridge (Bolton, 1973b, 1981a; Santschi, 1926b); Dr Lowy (Forel, 1907b); W M Mann (Bolton, 1980); R Mayne (Bolton, 1974a); Meyer (Santschi, 1923e); A Muller (Forel, 1894b); S A Neave (Bolton, 1974b, 1981b); Rene Oberthur (Emery, 1895j); W C H Peters (Gerstaecker, 1871); A W J Pomeroy (Bolton, 1973b); Reichard (Santschi, 1924a); A Reichensperger (Santschi, 1919h, 1925c, 1933b, 1937a); C Polidori & L Benagho (Rigato, 2002); H Prell (Forel, 1911d); O W Richards (Bolton, 1980, 1987); A D Robertson (Bolton, 1980); H G Robertson (Rigato, 2002, Taylor, 2005w); E S Ross & R E Leech (Bolton, 1976, 1980, 1983); Le Roy (Stadelmann, 1898); Ch Schroder (Forel, 1907e); S Schreuder (Santschi, 1914b); Schubotz (Stitz, 1911b, 1916); K Schwartze (Santschi, 1914a); Y Sjöstedt (Forel, 1907a; Mayr, 1907b; Santschi, 1914b; Wasmann, 1904); F Stuhlmann (Mayr, 1893; Stadelmann, 1898); S Uehara (Bolton, 1981b, 1987; Taylor, 2005w); A M Varela (Rigato, 2002); D Vesey-Fitzgerald (Bolton, 1981b; Weber, 1946c); H Viehmeyer (Santschi, 1914a, 1921c); A Voeltzkow (Forel, 1897c, 1907g, 1910e, 1913b); Voessler (Santschi, 1914b; Wheeler, 1922 list); Ilse Walker (Bolton, 1975a); P S Ward (Taylor, 2005w); M J Way (Bolton, 1976, 1981a, 1982, 1987); R M C Williams (Bolton, 1980); Zimmer (Forel, 1911d).


North-Central area

{short description of image}Mayr (1907b) reported on ants collected by the Swedish Expedition of 1905-1906 to "Deutsch-OstAfrika" led by Professor Yngve Sjöstedt. The area explored was the Kilimanajro and Meru Mountains, and the foothill area of Arusha and Moshi. Their base seems to have been Kibongoto (Kibonoto in Mayr's paper) 3° 10' 60S, 37° 6' 0E Altitude 1293 m. In all 42 species and subspecies were collected, with 3600 specimens. The collection references on the mountain are separated into - "Mischwald" - or mixed woodland, which I take to mean the lower slopes; "Kulturzone" - the farming area, predominatly now bananas and coffee; and, the "Regenwald" , which I take to mean the higher wet forest, or moss forest. Some specimens came from Mombo and other places on the western foothills of the Usambara Mountains.

North-Eastern area

Y Sjostedt in Usambaras & Kilmanjaro area (Forel, 1907a; Mayr, 1907b; Santschi, 1914b; Wasmann, 1904). Forel (1911d) reported ants collected by Zimmer, etc from "Afrique Allemande [Tanzania] at - Usambara Range, Amani 5°5' S 38°38' E; Monga slightly north of Amani; Njuss 5°12' S 38°35' E; Ulenge 5°15' S 39°10' E; Buiko 4°42' S 38° E; Kahe 3°33' S 37°30' E".

Santschi (1926b) - Dr Bayer at Kerio River,

Viehmeyer (1914) reported collections by K Schwarze at Kutu-Steppe, Morogoro.

Santschi (1926) reported collections by A Loveridge in 1916, at Kwadarema, Msiha; 30.xi.1917 at Morogoro (Mongoro)

The zoologist and entomologist Julius Vosseler, 1861-1933, published on copepods and amphipods (e.g. the Hyperiidea from the German Plankton expedition) [Scina vosseleri Tattersall, 1906]. Prof. Alfred Voeltzkow, 1860-1947, German / Austrian collector of natural objects in East Africa, is honoured in the ciliate name Spinivorticella voeltzkowi (Sondheim, 1929) and in the Tanzanian sponge name Cinachyrella voeltzkowii (Lendenfeld).

Emery (1910b) cited - Vosseler, "Die Ostarikanischen Treiberameisen (siafu)", Der Pflanzer, Tanga (Deutsch Ost-Afrika), N, 19, p 289 (1905)

Western Tanzania

Schubotz collected in Bukoba, Kagera Region, ca (?) 1910 (in Fishbase , e.g Monomorium disoriente Bolton (1987); Stizt (1911) and material ex Viehmeyer (Santschi, 1921c). Schubotz was on Deutsche Zentr. -Afr. -Exp. (Schubotz) (Berliner Museum). the Steppe südl. des Albert-Edward-Nyanza, Dez. 1907.

Southern Tanzania - Viehmeyer (1914) reported collections by Langenberg at Manow; also by K Jaure (Viehmeyer, 1922).


Summary of known collectors
A Dejean (Bolton, 1981a, 1983, 2002).


Summary of known collectors
Elena d'Aosta (Emery, 1912c); L Burgeon (Bolton, 1973b); H Neel (van Boven, 1972, 1975); E S Ross & R E Leech (Bolton, 1980, 1987); Schubotz (Stitz, 1911b); Y Sjostedt & W Leche (Wheeler, 1925b); R Verhuist (Bolton, 1973b); P Werner (Bolton, 1981b, 1983, 1987; Taylor, 2005w).

Few or no collections prior to the modern era. Emery (1912c) gave a short list of findings made during the voyage of the Duchess Elena d'Aosta to the Great Lakes Region of equatorial Africa, in August 1910 or thereabouts.

IN 2006, Gabriel Bizmungu sampled the ants on a coffee plantation at
Country: Rwanda; Province: Kigali rural; District: Bicumbi; Sector: Muyumbu; cell: Kabagagabo. This site is located at eastern part of Kigali City between Kigali and Rwamagana District. Date 9th to 20th January 2006. The site altitude : 4627 ft; latitude: 1º 56' 1.10'' S, longitude : 30º 03' 33.89'' E. The average temperature: max 28ºC and min 22ºC. Crops around coffee plantation were bananas, tomatoes, cassava, and sweet potatoes.


Summary of known collectors
G Arnold (Arnold, 1920a, 1926; Bolton, 1983, 1987; Prins, 1965a; Santschi, 1919a, 1919b, 1926b, 1928d, 1928f); Baum & Van der Kellen (Forel, 1910e); Paul Berthoud ((Forel, 1894b); F V Beste (Bolton, 1973b); H Brauns (Mayr, 1895); L F Brown (Bolton, 1973b); Fornasini (Emery, 1894i); Dr M Grabham (Santschi, 1937a); M H Hansing ((Forel, 1910e); Junod (Forel, 1894b); Dr Liengme (Forel, 1894b, 1910e; Santschi, 1919h); E Luja (Forel, 1902e; Wasmann, 1904b); J Muir (Santschi, 1937a); Arthur Muller (Forel, 1894b); D Odendaal (Bolton, 1974b); W C H Peters (Gerstaecker (1859); E S Ross & R M Leech (Bolton, 1980); Sausseur (Forel, 1879a); H Schouteden (Santschi, 1925c); von Schulthess (Santschi, 1915c); Stuhlmann (Mayr, 1893); C F M Swynnerton (Bolton, 1973b); S F Taylor (Santschi, 1930d); R E Turner (Bolton, 1973b, 1974a); Wilms (Forel, 1910f); Robert C Wroughton (Forel, 1910e); G Vasse (Santschi, 1912b, 1915c; Bolton, 1974b).


Arguably with more in common with Southern Africa -

Gerstaecker, A. (1863): Strepsiptera Kirby (Rhipiptera Latr.), Fächerflügler. - In: Peters, W.C.H., Carus, J.V. & Gerstaecker, C.E.A. (ed.): Handbuch der Zoologie, 2. Band, Arthropoden 78-80; Leipzig. Peters, W. Naturwissenschaftliche Reise nach Mossambique... in die Jahren 1842 bis 1848 ausgeführt von W. Peters: Zoologie Part V: Insecten und Myriopoden, published by Loew, Schaum, Hagen, Klug, Gerstaecker, Hopffer, Peters. Berlin, Reimer, 1862. Large folio 35 fine engravings ofwhich 3 are beautifully handcoloured mostly after Hagen. Plates loose (as published) in new half green halfcloth portfolio. $ 1,100 = Nissen ZBI, 3139; Horn-Schenkling 17.099. This is the complete rare large folio insect atlas from Peters' famous Mossambique expedition results. Wilhelm Peters (1815-1883) was the assistant of Johannes Müller, the great anatomist and was later appointed director of the Berlin Zoological Museum. "Soon Peters began to plan what was to become the major event of his life, an exploration of Mozambique, which had the enthusiastic support of Müller and of Alexander von Humboldt, then also at Berlin. Peters departed in September 1842, travelling on a Portuguese convict ship first to Angola and finally (June 1843) to Mozambique. There he managed to explore the entire coastal region and also spent nearly a year up the Zambesi River deep in the interior.... The collections he made were enormous and were written up, mainly by himself... a model faunal work for its day, comprehensive, authoritative, and well illustrated"(Adler, 'Contributions to the history of herpetology', p. 37). The set comprises: [Mammals] Zoologie I. Säugethiere. Berlin 1852. Folio. pp. xvi, 202, with 46 (35 handcoloured) lithographed or engraved plates. [Birds] Zoologie II. Vögel. Berlin n.d. 4to. 15 handcoloured lithographed plates. No text was published. [Amphibians] Zoologie III. Amphibien. Berlin 1882. Folio. With 33 lithographed plates. Lacks the printed text. [River Fish] Zoologie IV. Flussfische. Berlin 1868. 2 vols (text & atlas). 4to & folio. pp. xii, 116, with 20 (1 handcoloured) engraved plates. [Insects] Zoologie V. Insecten und Myriapoden. Berlin 1862. 2 vols (text & atlas). 4to & folio. pp. xxi, 566, with 35 (3 handcoloured) engraved plates. [Botany] Botanik. Berlin 1862-64. 2 vols. 4to. pp. xxii, iv, 584, with 61 lithographed plates. BM(NH)IV, p. 1555; Nissen ZBI, 3139.; Stafleu & Cowan 7759.

©2004, 2006, 2009, 2012 - Brian Taylor CBiol FSB FRES
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