Introduction The Ants of Africa
Chapter 2 - Geography and History - southeastern Africa (Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia & Zimbabwe)

Colonial era geography

In reviewing the original descriptions now (late-2003) made available by the efforts of Donat Agosti, I realised that the geography as understood in the late-19th century was not fully comprehended by modern researchers. In my possesssion I have a copy of the Eton Compendium of Geography, edition published around January 1856, by C.G.N. of King's College, London; the first edition, by Rev. Aaron Arrowsmith, having been published in 1831. I have reproduced the relevant pages - 724 to 727 - as a pdf which can be read by using the link {original description}. From the descriptions, however, it will be obvious that almost nothing was known by Europeans of any part of away from the coastal area.

NOTE: Extensively reviewed by Arnold (1915-1922 & appendix 1926), who took the Zambesi River as the northern limit of his "South Africa"; i.e. largely excluded Zambia (Northern Rhodesia) and Malawi (Nyasaland).


Formerly Northern Rhodesia

Summary of known collectors
Elena d'Aosta (Emery, 1912c); G Arnold (Arnold, 1917, 1920a, 1926b, 1946, 1947; Brown, 1963; Santschi, 1919a, 1926b); M Bingham (Bolton, 1980); H Dollman (Bolton, 1980, 1981b, 1987; Brown, 1975; Forel, 1910f; Wheeler, 1922); H S Evans (Bolton, 1973b, 1974a, 1975a, 1983); W T Gresham-Williams (Santschi, 1928d); Jalla (Wheeler, 1922 list); C T Macnamara (Bolton, 1974a, 1980, 1981b); Revoil (Forel, 1916); E S Ross & R E Leech (Bolton, 1980, 1983); Silverlock (Bolton, 1974b); Fr Steiner (Forel, 1910f).


Forel (1913a) reported extensive collections by G Arnold, H Brauns & K. Fickendey.


Formerly Nyasaland

Summary of known collectors
G Arnold (Arnold, 1946; Santschi, 1917c); Heyne (Forel, 1886f); N H L Krauss (Bolton, 1980); W A Lamborn (Bolton,. 1973b; Crawley, 1923a; Donisthorpe, 1933b); A Loveridge (Brown, 1953g); C W R McReary (Bolton, 1980); J E S Old (Bolton, 1981b); S A Neave (Bolton, 1973b, 1974b, 1987; Crawley, 1916a); Rendall (Wheeler, 1922 list); E S Ross & R E Leech (Bolton, 1980, 1983); C Sweeney (Bolton, 1973b); R C Wood (Bolton, 1974b); A Whyte (Bolton, 1973b).


Formerly Southern Rhodesia

Summary of known collectors
Elena d'Aosta (Wheeler 1922 list); G Arnold (Arnold, 1915, 1916, 1917, 1920a, 1922, 1924, 1926, 1944, 1946,1947, 1948, 1949, 1952a, 1955, 1956, 1958, 1959, 1960b, 1962; Bolton, 1975a, 1976, 1980, 1918a, 1981b, 1983, 1987, Brown, 1953g; Forel, 1907c, 1913a, 1913j, 1914d, 1915d; Donisthorpe, 1936e; Santschi, 1911g, 1915c, 1916b, 1917b, 1917e, 1918b, 1919a, 1919h, 1920b, 1920d, 1920i, 1923e, 1924b, 1925c, 1926b, 1928d, 1928f, 1930a, 1932a, 1937a, 1939b); W L Brown (Bolton, 1974b, 1975a, 1980, 1981a, 1983, 1987; Brown, 1975, 1978c); G H Bunzli (Bolton, 1975a); M Grabham (Bolton, 1981b); G Coghill (Arnold, 1922); Demarchi (Santschi, 1912b); Durand (Santschi, 1915c); A Hart (Taylor, 2005w); Jalla (Wheeler 1922 list); A M Macgregor (Arnold, 1916; Forel, 1914d); G Marshall (Marshall, 1902; Wheeler, 1922 list); H B Maufe (Arnold, 1917); R Mussard (Bolton, 1983, 1987); Father O'Neil (Forel, 1913j); L Peringuey (Arnold, 1926); A J Prins (Prins, 1982); Rohan Chabot (Santschi, 1925h); E S Ross & R E Leech (Bolton, 1980, 1983); M Snizek (Taylor, 2005w); B R Stuckenberg (Arnold, 1960a); Dr H Swale (Arnold, 1915; Bolton, 1975a, 1976, 1980, 1981b; Forel, 1913a); Swynnerton (Santschi, 1932a; Wheeler 1922 list); R L Thompson (Arnold, 1922); R W E Tucker (Santschi, 1920b); A Watsham (Bolton, 1983, 1987); K J Wilson (Bolton, 1980, 1983); R C Wroughton (Forel, 1910e); A E V Zealley (Arnold, 1924; Forel, 1913a).


Forel (1913a) reported extensive collections by G Arnold, H Brauns & K. Fickendey.


Summary of known collectors
R L Ghent (Bolton, 1980).


Formerly Bechuanaland

Summary of known collectors
G Arnold (Arnold, 1916, 1959; Bolton, 1975); G D H Carpenter (Donisthorpe, 1933b); M C Day (Bolton, 1981b); Dixey & Longstaff (Wheeler, 1922 list); P Forchhammer (Bolton, 1987); C Jacot-Guillarmod (Bolton, 1975); H O Lang (Bolton, 1981a, 1989); E S Ross & A R Stephen (Bolton, 1982); A Russell-Smith (Bolton, 1980, 1981a, 1982, 1987; Taylor, 2005w); E Simon (Emery, 1895h); G U Son (Bolton, 1981b); L Schultze, von Erffer (Forel, 1910f); Vernay-Lang (Bolton, 1980, 1982, 1987).


Formerly Basutoland

Summary of known collectors
G Arnold (Arnold, 1944, 1946; Bolton, 1981a); P Berthoud (Forel, 1879a); A L Bevis (Arnold, 1944, 1958); J C Bradley (Bolton, 1980); R L Ghent (Bolton, 1987); C Jacot-Guillarmod (Arnold, 1960b; Bolton, 1980, 1983); Mission Rohan Chabot (Santschi, 1925h); E Simon (Emery, 1921d); R M Sloley (Arnold, 1926; Forel, 1913j); Tosquinet (Forel, 1909b); G Weitzecker (Emery, 1892a, 1895h); R C Wroughton (Forel, 1907g, 1910e; Santschi, 1918b, 1926b).


Formerly South West Africa

{short description of image}The names of collectors and collection sites for the Hamburg "German South-West Africa Expedition" of 1911 (Stitz, 1923).

Summary of known collectors
G Arnold (Arnold, 1916; Santschi, 1920d, 1928f); Georg von Bayern (Forel, 1911e); S Braine (Bolton, 1987); Brunn (Forel, 1910e); Casper (Forel, 1910f); M C Day (Bolton, 1981b); Dinter (Forel, 1910f); G Fock (Stitz, 1923); Ganz (Wheeler, 1922 list); P M Hammond (Bolton, 1980, 1982); G Hobohm (Bolton, 1981b); D Hollis (Bolton, 1980); K Jordan (Santschi, 1937a); Langheld (Wheeler, 1922 list); R Leggott (Bolton, 1987); Lightfoot (Arnold, 1926); Lubbert (Arnold, 1926; Forel, 1910f; Stitz, 1911b); A C Marsh (Bolton, 1987, 1989); W Michaelsen (Stitz, 1923); J Ogilvie (Bolton, 1981b); L Peringuey (Emery, 1886f); W C H Peters (Forel, 1910f); A J Prins (Prins, 1973); E S Ross & R E Leech (Bolton, 1980); E S Ross & A R Stephen (Bolton, 1980); Scheben (Stitz, 1923); L Schultze (Forel, 1910f); S Simleit (Bolton, 1987); G U Son (Bolton, 1982); Steingrover (Forel, 1894b); Hans Thomsen (Stitz, 1923); R W E Tucker (Arnold, 1922, 1924, 1926; Bolton, 1987, Forel, 1910f; Santschi, 1923e); R E Turner (Bolton, 1981a; Donisthorpe, 1931b); Vernay-Lang (Bolton, 1975a, 1980); H Viehmeyer (Santschi, 1914a); von Zastrow (Stitz, 1923).

South Africa

Summary of known collectors
Dr C Akerman (Arnold, 1920a; Bolton, 1982); G Arnold (Arnold, 1915, 1917,1920a, 1922, 1924, 1944, 1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1952a, 1962; Bolton, 1975a,1981a, 1982, 1987; Forel, 1913a, 1913j, 1914d; Prins, 1982; Santschi, 1918b, 1919a, 1919b, 1920b, 1920d, 1932a); G Baines (Bolton, 1987); Ballion ((Forel, 1904d); Bates, or Bates collection (Forel, 1911e); D R Bayer (Forel, 1915c); Y Ben-Dov (Bolton, 1982); Paul Berthoud (Forel, 1879a, 1886f, 1890b; 1894b, 1910a); L Bevis (Forel, 1915c); C T Bingham (Bingham, 1906); R D Boyce (Arnold, 1920a); A A Boonzaaier (Prins, 1963; Taylor, 2005w); J C Bradley (Bolton, 1980); C U Brain (Arnold, 1917; Santschi, 1917b, 1918b); H Brauns (Arnold, 1917, 1920a, 1922, 1926; Bolton, 1980; Emery, 1902c; Forel, 1904d, 1905b, 1907g, 1910f, 1901h, 1911e, 1912m, 1913a, 1913j, 1914d, 1915c, Mayr, 1895, 1901b; Santschi, 1917b, 1919a, 1923e; Wasmann, 1904b); D J Brothers (Bolton, 1987; Shattuck, 1991); W L Brown (Bolton, 1974b, 1976, 1980, 1981b, 1983, 1987; Taylor, 2005w); B Brunhuber (Bolton, 1980, 1982); W Buttiker (Arnold, 1958); B Chambers (Taylor, 2005w); Cherry (Arnold, 1922); J J Cillie (Prins, 1963, 1973); T D A Cockerell (Bolton, 1987); C B Cooper (Arnold, 1915, 1920a, 1924; Bolton, 1975a, 1987; Forel, 1913j, 1914d, 1915c; Santschi, 1928d); H V Daley (Bolton, 1982); F Demarchi ((Santschi, 1926b); Dixey & Longstaff (Dixey, 1907); Drege (F Smith, 1858b; Roger, 1860; Westwood, 1843); Drewsen (Forel, 1879a); M Ellenberger (Santschi, 1915c); J C Faure (Arnold, 1944, 1948, 1952b; Bolton, 1918a, 1982, 1983); B L Fisher (Taylor, 2005w); Rev R Godfrey (Arnold, 1915, 1922, 1926, 1959; Forel, 1914d); Grobler (Bolton, 1975a); Guenizius (F Smith, 1858b); R H Harris (Bolton, 1987); C B Hardenburg (Arnold, 1920a); E K Hartwig (Arnold, 1948, 1949); Haviland (Arnold, 1920a, 1922, 1926; Emery, 1901d; Forel, 1901d, 1901f, 1905c, 1910e, 1910f, 1916; Santschi, 1918b, 1919a, 1919b, 1928f, 1930a); J Hewitt (Arnold, 1916; Bolton, 1976, 1980; Forel, 1913j; Santschi, 1919a, 1926b, 1932a); Peter Hlavac (Taylor, 2005w); J M Hutchinson (F Smith, 1876d); C F Jacot-Guillarmod (Bolton, 1980); W E Jones (Arnold, 1922, 1926; Santschi, 1921c); Junod (Bolton, 1982; Forel, 1904a, 1910e, 1916; Santschi, 1924a); C Keller (Forel, 1910e); G B King (Bolton, 1981a); H Kirby (Bolton, 1980; Weber, 1964); A de Kock & J D Majer (Taylor, 2005w); N L H Krauss (Bolton, 1980); H O Lang (Bolton, 1981b, 1982); Lingnau (Bolton, 1982); Krebs (Forel, 1910f); L Lochee-Bayne (Arnold, 1922; Santschi, 1928f); C P Lounsbury (Arnold, 1916; Bolton, 1987); B Marais (Bolton, 1980); H Bell-Marley (Arnold, 1922, 1926; Forel, 1914d, 1915c; Santschi, 1917b, 1920b, 1932a); A C Marsh (Bolton, 1989); Merley (Santschi, 1932a); C P v de Merve (Arnold, 1926; Bolton, 1977, 1987; Santschi, 1919a, 1926b, 1932a, 1939b); Dr L von Muralt (Forel, 1910e); Murchison (Forel, 1895); N J Myers (Arnold, 1958; Bolton, 1987); Novara Expedition (Mayr, 1862, 1865, 1901b); O'Neill (Wasmann, 1904b); F S Parsons (Bolton, 1980, 1981b, Santschi, 1937a); M Patterson (Bolton, 1982); S & J Peck (Bolton, 1983); C Peeters (Bolton, 1987); Miss A Pegler (Forel, 1915c); L Peringuey (Arnold, 1924, 1951; Emery, 1886, 1895h, 1899e; Forel, 1913j; Santschi, 1917b); E Phillips (Arnold, 1922; Bolton, 1987; Forel, 1914d); R W Plant (F Smith, 1858b); Br J H Power (Arnold, 1916, 1917, 1926; Bolton, 1974a; Forel, 1914d; Santschi, 1932a); A J Prins (Prins, 1963, 1965c, 1973, 1982); Dr Rattray (Arnold, 1926; Wasmann, 1904b); C/T Reeve (Arnold, 1922; Santschi, 1919b); Dr A Reichensperger (Satnschi, 1917b, 1926b); H G Robertson (Taylor, 2005w); Rolle (Forel, 1910c); E S Ross & R E Leech (Bolton, 1980); M Samways (Bolton, 1982, 1983, 1987; Taylor, 2005w); Sausseur (Forel, 1879a); Schaufuss (Mayr, 1901b); J D Schmidt (Taylor, 2005w); Prof Oscar Schneider (Mayr, 1895); L Schultze (Forel, 1910f); De Selys Fanson (Forel, 1909b); Sherry (Forel, 1913a); Prof F Silvestri (Santschi, 1914d); S H Skaife (Arnold, 1959); E Simon (Bolton, 1987; Emery, 1895h, 1899e, 1905d); R W Slobey (Bolton, 1981b); R H N Smithers (Arnold, 1944, 1956, 1959); G van Son (Bolton, 1975); B R Stuckenberg (Arnold, 1960a); H Swale (Bolton, 1980); Sir A Theiler (Arnold, 1922); H P Thomasset (Arnold, 1944; Bolton, 1987); Tosquinet (F Smith, 1858b); Ivar Trågärdh (Arnold, 1916; Forel, 1910f; Santschi, 1914d, 1914e, 1915c, 1917b, 1920g, 1923e, 1926b, 1937a); R W E Tucker (Arnold, 1922, 1926; Santschi, 1919a, 1926b); R E Turner (Bolton, 1975a, 1981a, 1983); M H Villet (Taylor, 2005w); Wartmann (Forel, 1910e); L Weatherill (Bolton, 1983); Giacomo/Jacques Weitzecker (Emery, 1895h); Wilms (Forel, 1905b, 1910f); Womesley (Bolton, 1980); Wood Mason (Forel, 1910e); Rob C Wroughton (Arnold, 1914, 1915, 1920a; Emery, 1901d; Forel, 1894b, 1910e, 1910f, 1911f; Santschi, 1926b).


F Smith (1876d) wrote of the study of the behaviour of Cataulacus intrudens (as Meranoplus intrudens) and Tetraponera natalensis (Sima) by Mr John Monkhouse Hutchinson, resident in the Weenen District of South Africa.

Emery (1895h) described how, at that time the knowledge of the ants of mainland Africa was much less well known than for Madagascar, thanks to the great expedition led by Grandidier, from which the ants were reported by Forel. To redress this paucity of knowledge Eugene Simon studied the ants of southern Africa and Emery was able to identify some 88 species and varieties, the majority of which were new. In the same paper, Emery reported ants collected in Lesotho (Basutoland) and Natal by Jacques Weitzecker, missionary of the Vaudoise Church, and some other species from his own collection.

Arnold (1915-) .
We find (1915: 111) that Dr H Brauns lived at Willowmore, Cape Province, and had a personal collection of ants, including Dorylus (R.) fimbriatus collected by Mr G A K Marshall at Salisbury, S Rhodesia. Earlier on the same page, Arnold refers to Dr Péringuey as informing him how he (P.) collected the queens of Dorylus (D.) helvolus by attracting the colony to a leg of raw mutton.

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