Pheidole costauriensis Santschi - new status
Type location Ghana (Pheidole
rotundata For. stirps costauriensis n. st., Santschi,
433, major; Santschi, 1915c: 250, minor), from Winnebah, collector
unknown - see below .
(1914a) description of costauriensis
is at . Emery's (1915j)
illustrated revision of Pheidole
melancholica, with notes on costauriensis
is at .
Major (Santschi, 1914a) - comparisons all with Pheidole
rotundata - TL 5.3 mm; head oval, very convex, slightly longer
than wide in posterior third; with a complete median notch; eyes in
anterior third of head; clypeus feebly carinate with slightly scalloped
anterior margin; mandibles with elongated punctures changing to
striations on outer edges; scape reaches middle of head; segment three
of funiculus as wide as long, others longer and longer; pronotum
strongly conical laterally over all matt due to fine
reticulo-puncturation, upper head and gaster submatt; pronotum with
transverse rugae; yellowish pilosity sparse, except on gaster and legs;
reddish-brown, alitrunk more red with angles of pronotum and propodeal
spines dark brown, legs yellow brown
Minor - TL 3 mm; head longer and more rounded posteriorly; dorsum of
alitrunk more strongly sculptured; propodeum longer with stronger
spines; black or very dark brown, appendages and mandibles brownish.
Minor (Santschi, 1915c: 250) - TL 2.5 mm; head more rounded than rotundata;
dorsum of alitrunk and sides of head lightly reticulo-punctate, but
shiny (smooth in the type rotundata) dark brown
Holotype major collected at Winnebah, from Viehmeyer;
minor from Guinea, Kindia, collector Silvestri, 1 minor Wheeler
(1922) listed melancholica from Ghana (Aburi, F.
The specimens from Benin, Nigeria and Ghana (below) appear to match the
overall description and colouration but are larger than those described
by Santschi; although Santschi's size is larger than that of impressifrons.
The photomontage of the
type worker is collated from http://www.antweb.org/specimen.do?name=focol1308
Nigeria specimens (Pheidole crassinoda in
Taylor, 1980a: 13)
Colour of both morphs, head and alitrunk brown/dark
red-brown, gaster darker to black, appendages lighter with tarsi and
antennal clubs brown.
MAJOR. TL 8.11 mm, HL 2.91, HW 2.86, SL 1.37, PW 1.21;
with the head principally smooth apart from anterior longitudinal
rugae, dorsum shiny. Pronotum rugulose; mesonotum, propodeum and
pedicel spiculate; postpetiole with lateral sharp apices and light
transverse rugae. Propodeal spines relatively short, narrow and
out-turned triangular. Gaster finely punctate. Erect hairs few on the
head but moderately abundant elsewhere.
MINOR. TL 4.36 mm,
HL 1.01, HW 0.86, SL 1.24, PW 0.58; with
head, pronotum and gaster; mesonotum, propodeum and pedicel spiculate.
Erect hairs sparse and relatively short. Head with clypeus medially
carinate, shallowly emarginate anteriorly; longitudinal rugae on the
genae. Petiole produced laterally and the anterior of the peduncle.
An all over lighter variety was also found and this was
denoted as species Tą.
Collected at the Cocoa research Institute of Nigeria,
Idi Ayunre, from a nest in a cocoa crevice, the opening of which was
closed with debris. Will tend aphids on cocoa flowers.
Ewuim, Badejo & Ajayi (1997) used pitfall traps to
monitor the activity of ants in a forest floor and a one-year fallow
plot in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, at monthly intervals from November 1980 to
October 1981, with similar studies in October 1987 and June 1988. They
also made manual collections of ants from the ground surface of the
plots. Ten species of ants were collected, the most common of which was
P. crassinoda. This species accounted for 52% and
88% of the ants collected manually from forest and fallow respectively.
It was also significantly higher in the pitfall traps.
Oxford University Museum
specimens - note the minors below may be Pheidole neutralis
B Taylor det.
|running on the ground
photomontage is of a major from Ghana, collector Sky Stephens,
2006. Specimens in the personal collection of Dr Stephens. Other images
can be seen in the folder at -
The photomontage is
of a minor from Ghana, collector Sky
Stephens, 2006. Other images can be seen in the folder at -
The photomontage is
of a minor from Benin,
Kika-Beterou; collector J-F Vayssieres (RVA 3099).