Contents Contents The Ants of Egypt
SUBFAMILY MYRMICINAE - Genus Camponotus Emery

Genus Camponotus Mayr (1861: 35)


Diagnostic Features - Polymorphic. Antennae 12-segmented, inserted some distance behind the posterior clypeal margin. Frontal carinae converging anteriorly, leaving the antennal insertions only partially or not at all covered. Eyes present, usually well developed and situated behind the midlength of the head. Clypeus often with a median portion projecting as a truncated lobe, more obvious in larger workers. Mandibles with five to seven stout teeth. Promesonotal suture distinct, development of other sutures variable. Alitrunk unarmed. Petiole a node or scale, unarmed. Acidopore circular and clearly visible.

Mayr's (1861) genus description is at {original description}.

Finzi (1936: 189ff) listed only three species definitely known from Egypt -
fellah - including xerxes as reported by Karavaiev (1911: 11)
aegyptiaca (including maculatus determined by Forel (1908: 16) and Karavaiev (1911: 10)
He also reported a single worker from Hamman, 15.iii.1935, which might be a variety of rufoglaucus.

Walker (1871: 170) described Camponotus pilaeogaster; this minor specimen is not obviously any of the better described species and was not listed by Bolton (1995: 117)..

A very large, complex genus, which is taxonomically confused and in great need of revision. Subgenera known from Egypt are shown below -

{Camponotus (Myrmosericus) cruentatus {camponotus cruentatus}Myrmosericus Forel (1912i: 91) - clypeus carinate, with pronounced anterior, usually rectangular, lobe (as Tanaemyrmex); tibiae laterally compressed with a longitudinal groove Camponotus. (Myrmosericus)
-- {Camponotus cruentatus}Integument entirely opaque; very finely sculptured, silky and more or less covered with rather abundant pilosity, especially the gaster; base colour matt black or brown, but posterior and ventral areas of alitrunk, coxae and most of femora, petiole and dorsum of first segment of gaster ferruginous red; TL 6-14 mm; nest in earth or sand (description after Emery 1916b: 230) C. (Myrmosericus) cruentatus
-- {Camponotus micans major}Wholly dark, near black; TL 6.8-12 mm
C. (Myrmosericus) micans
{Camponotus (Myrmotrema) rhamses major}Myrmotrema
Forel (1912i: 91) - head as in Orthonotomyrmex, major very broad posteriorly, minor trapezoidal, broadened posteriorly; thorax with or without dorsal notch; in major and queen anterior of head covered with deep round pits.
C. rhamses workers TL 6.0-8.2 mm; totally black except for apices of appendages which are red-brown; densely puncturate and matt, fossettes on head small and spaced out but found right up to the occiput; gaster with golden pubescence but not so dense as to hide the sculpture; erect hairs slender and clear yellow
C. (Myrmotrema) rhamses
Ashmead (1906: 31) - as a rule of a heavy build, with opaque integument, sometimes silky or with a few short, coarse, obtuse hairs. Head of major very broad posteriorly. Head of minor trapezoidal, broadened behind. Clypeus with or without median lobe. Pronotum variably margined; dorsum of thorax usually with metanotal groove, in the form of a notch, sometimes reduced to a deep line; propodeum margined on sides and behind, sometimes rounded. Petiole node squamiform or nodiform, summit always smooth edged
Camponotus (Orthonotomyrmex)
-- {short description of image}TL 8-10 mm; antennae generally more slender (except in largest workers); anterior margin of clypeus with longer, finer fringe of forward projecting hairs; dorsum of propodeum without an obvious median longitudinal carina, in profile relatively short and more convex, the propodeal spiracle is placed almost on the margin of the declivity; petiole node relatively thin with smooth edges but emarginate; sparse erect pilosity and reduced pubescence, except on gaster; base colour deep somber red; gaster pubescence bright golden Egypt (type location), Sudan and eastwards into South Asia - C. (Orthonotomyrmex) obtusus - revived status
-- {Camponotus (Orthonotomyrmex) sericeus}TL 8-10 mm; scapes somewhat shorter and thicker; propodeum usually with longitudinal median carina and more sharply marginate, in profile prodeum dorsum near flat, the propodeal spiracle is set distinctly forward of the margin of the declivity; petiole node thick and domed; generally dull as very sharply and evenly reticulo-punctate; anterior margin of clypeus with fringe of coarser, shorter, forward projecting hairs; pubescence scanty on head, increasing posteriorly to gaster where it is abundant and dull bronzy-golden; underlying body black, basal third of scape and funiculus dark brown-red Pan-African - C. (Orthonotomyrmex) sericeus
Ashmead (1905b: 384) - member species regarded as in Myrmoturba by Wheeler (1922); synonymized by Emery (1925b: 75) - clypeus carinate, with pronounced anterior median lobe (usually rectangular). Head of major usually much wider posteriorly, occiput usually without a border; minor head with parallel sides, sometimes narrowed posteriorly; mandibles usually with 6-7 teeth; thorax dorsum arcuate, rarely with propodeum slightly depressed and saddle-shaped. Usually nesting in ground or under stones (truly global with very many species).

1 Without gular hairs on underside of head; clypeus with well-defined longitudinal carina
-- With at least a few gular hairs on underside of head; hind tibiae with a row of 6 plus spiny hairs or setae on the flexor surface; clypeus with median carina obtuse and not reaching anterior margin
2 {Camponotus aegyptiacus major} MAJOR TL > 11 mm; poly- or trimorphic, major only moderately sized; major head & thorax uniformly dark brown, gaster with distinctive pattern of yellow-brown patches; minors more predominantly yellow brown C. (Tanaemyrmex) aegyptiacus
-- {Camponotus (Tanaemyrmex) maculatus} MAJOR TL 14 mm plus; fairly uniform reddish-brown; overall fine coriaceous sculpture giving a matt appearance, gaster and occiput shinier; with slender legs and antennae C. (Tanaemyrmex) cognatocompressus
-- {Camponotus sylvaticus major}MAJOR TL 14 mm; mandibles with 6-7 teeth; clypeus with distinct median carina, anterior extended to form a very wide, rectangular lobe with a straight border body quite slender, very slender in small workers; shiny except for the head in the majors; legs long, sometimes very long; whole of body very finely rugose and punctuate; on head the rugae are stronger and the punctures larger and more frequent; overall dark ferruginous, gaster shiny black possibly not in Egypt - C. (Tanaemyrmex) sylvaticus
-- {Camponotus (Tanaemyrmex) maculatus} MAJOR TL 14 mm plus; very variable in colour and size, enormously plastic species (type form in photo).
Egypt records - possibly not found as niche filled by C. aegyptiacus; Karavaiev (1911: 10) reported finding major and minor workers and wingless queens from Cairo but he noted the queens had parallel sided heads matching the type queens in Emery (1908a: 192).
However, Sharaf list - Abuzabal (Qalyubiya), (2); Abuzabal (Qalyubiya), (1); Abuzabal (Qalyubiya), 14.v.2003 (1) (SHC). Local distribution: Nagh Hammadi, Salloum, Kantara.
The link is to the page on Ants of Africa.
possibly not in Egypt - C. (Tanaemyrmex) maculatus
3 {short description of image}MAJOR TL ca 15 mm; HW 4.3 HL 3.9 mm; underside of head with a few gular hairs; mostly dark brown, alitrunk yellow (particularly on minors), funiculus, petiole, rust patches on gaster C. (Tanaemyrmex) fellah
-- {Camponotus oasium minor}MAJOR TL 16 mm; dorsum of petiole steeply rounded; head large, domed and short; appendages relatively short and slender; almost entirely matt; minors with prismatic tibiae
Minor illustrated
C. (Tanaemyrmex) oasium
-- {Camponotus (Tanaemyrmex) thoracicus}MAJOR TL ca 15 mm; HW 4.8 HL 4.2 mm; scape 3.8-3.9 mm; dorsum of petiole widely rounded to flat; head shiny; alitrunk, petiole and first two segments of gaster yellow-brown, posterior of gaster and head black-brown; nests in sandy ground - C. (Tanaemyrmex) thoracicus
-- {Camponotus adenensis minor}MAJOR TL 16 mm; dorsum of petiole steeply rounded; head large, domed and short; appendages relatively short and slender; almost entirely matt; minors with prismatic tibiae
Minor illustrated (part damaged major on species page)
C. (Tanaemyrmex) adenensis
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