The Ants of Africa
Genus Camponotus subgenus Tanaemyrmex
Camponotus (Tanaemyrmex) maculatus (Fabricius)

maculatus species-group
TL 8-10-12 mm plus; alitrunk profile convex in a smooth elongated curve, propodeal declivity not or poorly separable from dorsum, if the latter always much shorter than dorsum; petiole scale of major cuneiform, with convex anterior face and quite sharp dorsal margin; mostly bicoloured with alitrunk lighter and distinct light areas on gaster; dimorphic (?) minors with head narrowed posteriorly but not dramatically so and without any "neck".

Camponotus (Tanaemyrmex) maculatus (Fabricius)

return to key {link to the Hymenoptera Name Server} Type location West Africa (Formica maculata, Fabricius, 1782: 491, worker; Mayr, 1862: 654, queen & male; Donisthorpe, 1915a: 221, redescription of the type); Wheeler (1922) reported the location as "in Africa aequinoctali" adding probably Sierra Leone .

The original Fabricius (1793) description is at {original description}. Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau (1835: 213) gave a description, this is at {original description}. Mayr (1862: 654) gave a further description which is at {original description}.

Note: Forel (1891b: 29ff) gave a description, this is at {original description}. This, however, was stated as being of C. maculatus liocnemis by Emery (1905d: 30). Forel, for instance, gave the base colour as black rather than dark brown.

Below I give the listing, apparently stemming from Baroni Urbani (1972: 125-127) that appeared in Bolton (1995: 109).

Having read all the original descriptions and attempted reviews, I find that list to be greatly misleading. Thus, I have prepared several linked pages.
First is a clarification of the West African type form maculatus s.s. historic redescription.
To complement that I have a compilation of maculatus s.s. modern specimens with a major, minor and a queen.
Then, I have attempted to collate, compare and key out the forms that have clear affinities with the type species. That is on a Varieties catalogue.
I have also separated the forms that appear not to have obvious affinities with the type form Separated forms.

The type form seems southern (Ghana, Cameroun, Benin). Even when the majors seem almost identical, it appears there is a Sahel /savannah population (Senegal, Mali, Sudan, Tanzania [Mkomazi], South Africa) that has minors that are largely pale, apart from the base dark colour of the gaster; these have pale mandibles.  A population from Sudan has essentially brownish minors that have very dark, near black mandibles and anterior clypeus.

Specimens examined by me are listed on OUMNH list.

I think it essential to point out that the specimens shown on are almost all NOT Camponotus maculatus s.s., nor even closely related to the type form. An exception that appears to match the type form is shown from Comoros at

Listing as in Bolton (1995: 109)


foveolatus (Stitz, 1925: 125, major & minor workers) from the Philippines;
humilior (Forel, 1902h: 497, major & minor workers; Taylor & Brown, 1985: 116) from Australia;
Camponotus proletaria (name replacing miserabilis Santschi, 1914d: 379, major & minor workers) from Guinea, from Kindia, F. Silvestri) placed as a junior synonym by Baroni Urbani (1972: 126) ;
obfuscatus (Viehmeyer, 1916a: 154, major & minor workers) from Singapore;
strangulatus (Santschi, 1911e: 129, illustrated, major & minor workers & queen) from Madagascar;
subnudus (Emery, 1889b: 51, major & minor workers; Forel, 1913k: 125, queen) from Burma;
sylvaticomaculatus (Dalla Torre, 1893: 241, worker) from Greece;
ugandensis (Santschi, 1923e: 292, worker) from Uganda.

Junior synonyms: = synonymy by Baroni Urbani (1972: 125). Baroni Urbani's multiple synonymization (1972: 123 ff) of the many so-called varieties of maculatus was presented with very few details of his actual study of specimens, although he noted he had seen the specimens in Basel and Parigi, as well as material in London.

atramentarius (Forel, 1904b: 379, minor worker; Forel, 1910f: 26, queen) from Ethiopia
erythraea (Emery, 1920c: 14, major worker) from Ethiopia
ballioni (Forel, 1904d: 176, worker & queen)from South Africa
boera (Forel, 1910f: 27; Santschi, 1925h: 166,major & minor workers & queen) from South Africa
cognata (Smith, F., 1858b: 35, soldier & worker: Mayr, 1862: 655, queen & male) from South Africa
intonsus (Emery 1905d: 29, footnote, major & minor workers) from South Africa
lacteipennis (Smith F., 1858b: 34, all forms) from South Africa
liocnemis (Emery, 1905d, footnote, major & minor workers; Santschi, 1914e: 38, queen & male) from South Africa
mathildae (Forel, 1910c: 266, major & minor workers & queen) from South Africa
cavallus (Santschi, 1911g: 211, major & minor workers & queen) from Angola
hieroglyphicus (Santschi, 1917b: 290, major & minor workers & queen) from Angola
cluisoides (Forel, 1913h: 354, major & minor workers) from Kenya
sarmentus (Emery, 1920c: 14, illustrated, major & minor workers)from Kenya
semispicatus (Emery, 1920c: 5, worker) from Kenya
conakryensis (Emery, 1920c: 13, major & minor workers) from Guinea
flavifemur (Santschi, 1937g: 84, worker & queen) from Tanzania
flavominor (maculatus st melanocnemis var flavominor, Santschi, 1920i: 4, footnote, worker; Emery, 1925b: 87, major & minor workers) from Benin
hannae (Santschi, 1919a: 349, illustrated, major & minor workers) from Zimbabwe
manzer (Forel, 1910e: 452, soldier) from Zimbabwe
liengmei (Forel, 1894b: 67, major & minor workers; Forel, 1907g: 88, male) from Mozambique
lividior (Santschi, 1911e; 128, all forms) from Comoro Is.
lohieri (Emery, 1915g: 22, worker) from Ivory Coast (at Jacqueville, by Lohier)
melanocnemis (H. Pobeguin, in Santschi, 1911c: 368, major worker; Santschi, 1915c: 278, worker: raised to subspecies by Forel, 1915, with its junior synonym schultzei, Forel, 1912j: 179, major & minor workers) from Congo - raised to species by me
nubis (Weber, 1943c: 385, illustrated, major & minor workers) from Sudan
sudanicus (Weber, 1943c: 385, major & minor workers; synonymy by Baroni Urbani 1972: 125) from Sudan
radamoides (Forel, 1891b: 213, major & minor workers) from Madagascar
schereri (Forel, 1911e: 289, worker & queen) from Liberia, at Nebena, by Scherer
thomensis (Santschi, 1920i: 3, major & minor workers & male) from So Tom I.
tuckeri (Santschi, 1932a: 391, major & minor workers & male) from Namibia
zumpti (Santschi, 1937b: 103, worker) from Cameroun

Unavailable names:;
calceatus (Santschi, 1930b: 76, major & minor workers) from Angola
cluis (Forel, 1909b: 67, worker) from Angola
cataractae (Santschi, 1919b: 239, major & minor workers) from Zimbabwe
contaminatus (Santschi, 1917b: 291, major & minor workers) from Zimbabwe
diffusus (Santschi, 1917b: 292, major & minor workers) from Zimbabwe
georgei (Santschi, 1923e: 290, illustrated, major & minor workers) from Zimbabwe
citinus (Santschi, 1930b: 77, footnote, major & minor workers) from Zare
pessimus (Wheeler, 1922: 235) from Zare
cognato-maculatus (Forel, 1889: 255; name used in Forel, 1886f: 19, two workers from Kakoma, "Equatorial Africa" (in Congo or Kenya?) but in 1889 specimens were from Cycads in Greece!
hansingi (Forel, 1910e: 452, major worker from Mozambique (also South Africa)
importunoides (Forel, 1914d: 249, major & minor workers) from South Africa
incommoda (Forel, 1914d: 250, worker) from South Africa
madecassa (Emery, 1905d: 30, footnote, worker) from Madagascar

2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2013 - Brian Taylor CBiol FSB FRES
11, Grazingfield, Wilford, Nottingham, NG11 7FN, U.K.