Type location West
Africa (Formica maculata, Fabricius, 1782:
491, worker; Mayr, 1862: 654, queen & male; Donisthorpe, 1915a:
221, redescription of the type); Wheeler (1922) reported the location
as "in Africa aequinoctali" adding probably Sierra Leone .
Fabricius (1793) description is at . Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau (1835:
213) gave a description, this is at .
Mayr (1862: 654) gave a further description which is at .
(1891b: 29ff) gave a description, this is at .
This, however, was stated as being of C. maculatus liocnemis
by Emery (1905d: 30). Forel, for instance, gave the base colour as
black rather than dark brown.
Below I give the listing,
apparently stemming from Baroni
Urbani (1972: 125-127) that appeared in Bolton (1995: 109).
Having read all the original descriptions and
attempted reviews, I find that list to be greatly misleading. Thus, I
prepared several linked pages.
First is a clarification of the West African type form maculatus
s.s. historic redescription.
To complement that I have a compilation of maculatus
s.s. modern specimens with a major, minor and a queen.
Then, I have attempted
to collate, compare and key out the forms that
have clear affinities with the type species. That is on a Varieties
I have also separated the forms that appear not to have
obvious affinities with the type form Separated
The type form seems southern (Ghana, Cameroun, Benin).
Even when the
majors seem almost identical, it appears there is a Sahel /savannah
population (Senegal, Mali, Sudan, Tanzania [Mkomazi], South Africa)
that has minors that are largely pale, apart from the base dark colour
of the gaster; these have pale mandibles. A population from Sudan
has essentially brownish minors that have very dark, near black
mandibles and anterior clypeus.
Specimens examined by me are listed on OUMNH
think it essential to point out that the specimens shown on http://www.antweb.org/description.do?rank=species&name=maculatus&genus=camponotus&project=
are almost all NOT Camponotus maculatus s.s., nor
even closely related to the type form. An exception that appears
to match the type form is shown from Comoros at http://www.antweb.org/specimen.do?name=casent0146442&shot=p1&project=
as in Bolton (1995: 109)
(Stitz, 1925: 125, major & minor workers) from the Philippines;
(Forel, 1902h: 497, major & minor workers; Taylor & Brown,
1985: 116) from Australia;
(name replacing miserabilis Santschi, 1914d:
379, major & minor workers) from Guinea, from
Kindia, F. Silvestri) placed as a junior synonym by Baroni Urbani (1972: 126) ;
(Viehmeyer, 1916a: 154, major & minor workers) from Singapore;
(Santschi, 1911e: 129, illustrated, major & minor workers &
(Emery, 1889b: 51, major & minor workers; Forel, 1913k: 125, queen)
(Dalla Torre, 1893: 241, worker) from Greece;
(Santschi, 1923e: 292, worker) from Uganda.
synonyms: = synonymy by
Baroni Urbani (1972: 125). Baroni Urbani's multiple synonymization
(1972: 123 ff) of the many so-called varieties of maculatus
was presented with very few details of his actual study of specimens,
although he noted he had seen the specimens in Basel and Parigi, as
well as material in London.
(Forel, 1904b: 379, minor worker; Forel, 1910f: 26, queen) from Ethiopia
(Emery, 1920c: 14, major worker) from Ethiopia
(Forel, 1904d: 176, worker & queen)from South
(Forel, 1910f: 27; Santschi, 1925h: 166,major & minor workers
queen) from South
(Smith, F., 1858b: 35, soldier & worker: Mayr, 1862: 655, queen
& male) from South
(Emery 1905d: 29, footnote, major & minor workers) from South
(Smith F., 1858b: 34, all forms) from South
(Emery, 1905d, footnote, major & minor workers; Santschi, 1914e:
queen & male) from South
(Forel, 1910c: 266, major & minor workers & queen) from South
(Santschi, 1911g: 211, major & minor workers & queen) from Angola
(Santschi, 1917b: 290, major & minor workers & queen) from Angola
(Forel, 1913h: 354, major & minor workers) from Kenya
(Emery, 1920c: 14, illustrated, major & minor workers)from Kenya
(Emery, 1920c: 5, worker) from Kenya
(Emery, 1920c: 13, major & minor workers) from Guinea
(Santschi, 1937g: 84, worker & queen) from Tanzania
(maculatus st melanocnemis var flavominor,
Santschi, 1920i: 4, footnote, worker; Emery, 1925b: 87, major &
minor workers) from Benin
(Santschi, 1919a: 349, illustrated, major & minor workers) from Zimbabwe
(Forel, 1910e: 452, soldier) from Zimbabwe
(Forel, 1894b: 67, major & minor workers; Forel, 1907g: 88, male)
(Santschi, 1911e; 128, all forms) from Comoro Is.
(Emery, 1915g: 22, worker) from Ivory Coast (at
Jacqueville, by Lohier)
(H. Pobeguin, in Santschi, 1911c: 368, major worker; Santschi, 1915c:
worker: raised to subspecies by Forel, 1915, with its junior synonym schultzei,
Forel, 1912j: 179, major & minor workers) from Congo - raised to species by me
(Weber, 1943c: 385, illustrated, major & minor workers) from Sudan
(Weber, 1943c: 385, major & minor workers; synonymy by Baroni
1972: 125) from Sudan
(Forel, 1891b: 213, major & minor workers) from Madagascar
(Forel, 1911e: 289, worker & queen) from Liberia,
at Nebena, by Scherer
(Santschi, 1920i: 3, major & minor workers & male) from São
(Santschi, 1932a: 391, major & minor workers & male) from Namibia
(Santschi, 1937b: 103, worker) from Cameroun
(Santschi, 1930b: 76, major & minor workers) from Angola
(Forel, 1909b: 67, worker) from Angola
(Santschi, 1919b: 239, major & minor workers) from Zimbabwe
(Santschi, 1917b: 291, major & minor workers) from Zimbabwe
(Santschi, 1917b: 292, major & minor workers) from Zimbabwe
(Santschi, 1923e: 290, illustrated, major & minor workers) from Zimbabwe
(Santschi, 1930b: 77, footnote, major & minor workers) from Zaïre
(Wheeler, 1922: 235) from Zaïre
(Forel, 1889: 255; name used in Forel, 1886f: 19, two workers from
Kakoma, "Equatorial Africa" (in Congo or Kenya?) but in 1889 specimens
were from Cycads in Greece!
(Forel, 1910e: 452, major worker from Mozambique (also
(Forel, 1914d: 249, major & minor workers) from South
(Forel, 1914d: 250, worker) from South Africa
(Emery, 1905d: 30, footnote, worker) from Madagascar