The Ants of Africa
Genus Camponotus subgenus Tanaemyrmex
Genus Camponotus

Subgenus Tanaemyrmex Ashmead (1905b: 384) - member species regarded as in Myrmoturba by Wheeler (1922); synonymized by Emery (1925b: 75).

Ashmead wrote only "Tribe III. - Camponotini. Genera: ... Tanaemyrmex, Ashm. n. g. (type Formica longipes, Gerst.)" [see Camponotus (Tanaemyrmex) etiolipes (Gerstäcker)] also "Dinomyrmex, Ashm., n. g. (type Formica gigas, Latr.) [Latreille, 1802c: 105, also F Smith, 1858b: 14, from India, Bingham, 1903: 369; see www.antweb.org images]. Myrmoturba Forel (1912i) and Dinomyrmex Ashmead (1905b). Forel (192i) is at {original description}

{link to the Hymenoptera Name Server}Subgenus definition -- clypeus carinate, with pronounced anterior median lobe (usually rectangular). Head of major usually much wider posteriorly, occiput usually without a border; minor head with parallel sides, sometimes narrowed posteriorly; mandibles usually with 6-7 teeth; thorax dorsum arcuate, rarely with propodeum slightly depressed and saddle-shaped. Usually nesting in ground or under stones (truly global with very many species).


Camponotus (Dinomyrmex) gigasEmery (1925b: 63) separated subgenus Dinomyrmex as having the mandibles with some reduced (géminée) teeth; clypeus carinate, extended forward as a strong lobe, impressed medianly and each side with a raised angle in the form of a tooth; giant Malay species.  Under Tanaemyrmex (as follows) he had "Camponotus subg. Dinomyrmex (part) [all except gigas, the species in Forel, 1912: 91, and Forel, 1914a: 259, 268]. This was contrary to the separation in Wheeler (1922: 239 ff) where pompeius, langi, caesar, massinissa and wellmani were in Dinomyrmex; plus (962 ff) aequatorialis, brevicollis, caffer, immigrans, longipes, sexpunctatus, and varus (with their then subspecies, etc.).

Emery (1925b: 76) recognised three groups of workers:-
alpha - with sides of head parallel and occipital border usually rounded, vertex not impressed
beta - with sides convergent behind; vertex clearly depressed and the eyes are well removed from the occipital border
gamma - even more accentuated than beta, the posterior of the head being cone-shaped with the occipital border reduced to a narrow articulation, sometimes extended into a neck, particuarly in forms where the cone-shape is not so accentuated
Emery added that intermediates also could be found.

Emery listed the subgenus members the species as follow (African members only) -
maculatus-gouldi-group - aequatorialis, brevicollis, caffer, crawleyi, donisthorpei, guttatus, hova ssps, immigrans, langi, longipes, maculatus with many ssps, masimissa, pompeius, sexpunctatus, varus and wellmani
irritans-thraso-group - acvapimensis, arnoldinus, bianconii, baynei, cleobulus, kersteni, maguassa, thales and thraso ssps
compressus-sylvaticus-group - compressus ssps probativa & incommoda, congolensis, fornasinii, knysnae, solon (with ssp brutus and varieties chiton, jugurtha and lycurgus) and somalinus
ungrouped - rubripes, werthi


Santschi (1926a) gave a consideration of the then subgenera - Tanaemyrmex Ashmead (1905b), Myrmoturba Forel (1912i) and Dinomyrmex Ashmead (1905b). This is at {original description}. The peculiarity of the minor forms where the head is dramatically narrowed behind the occiput, apparently used for separating subgenus Dinomyrmex, was left in confusion. Apart from the strange apparently monomorphic Camponotus (Myrmoxygenys) caesar, my observation is that such minors appear to be restricted to what I have termed the pompeius-group. Even so, as will be seen under Camponotus maculatus, the proliferation of subspecies and varieties leaves chaos. Santschi also pointed out that he regarded Camponotus hova, primarily from Madagascar but with some purported forms from South Africa, as a mimetic of maculatus.


Note I have reconised a new species-complex, guttatus-complex, within the maculatus-group; majors with heads longer than wide, approximately rectangular in full face view with weakly arcuate sides and an only shallowly impressed occipitum. Members presently abjectus (Santschi, 1937d: 242); guttatus Emery (1899e: 498); kersteni (Gerstäcker, 1871: 355); minisculus (Viehmeyer, 1914c); and proletaria Baroni Urbani (1971b: 362, solely as a replacement name for Camponotus (Myrmoturba) maculatus F. st. miserabilis n.st. Santschi (1914d: 379, soldier & worker); itself according to Baroni Urbani, 1972: 123). Baroni Urbani's multiple synonymization (1972: 123 ff) of the many so-called varieties of maculatus was presented with very little detail of his actual study of specimens, although he noted he had seen the specimens in Basel and Parigi, as well as material in London.


Provisional key to Major morph of African species - based primarily on historical descriptions, caution is urged and the main descriptions should be perused to verify any diagnosis; illustrations of perceived minors also are given where possible.

Although, I am leaving it in this catalogue as a substantive species, C. rubripes Latreille seems to be too enigmatic to be a recognisable species. Forel (1886f) summarised the characters common to all subspecies, varieties and races of rubripes and that is on - {original description}, giving more a set of characters for the subgenus than anything else.

A1 {Camponotus maculatus}Majors with alitrunk profile convex in a smooth elongated curve, propodeal declivity (when obvious from angle with dorsum) very short (at least two species-complexes), from above with a narrow posterior at transition to declivity
Minors with relatively short scapes and legs cf pompeius-group {short description of image}
abjectus, aegyptiacus, aequatorialis, arnoldinus (?), baynei, cognatocompressus, congolensis, desantii, guttatus, kersteni, maculatus, negus, (rubripes), sexpunctatus (?), traegaordhi
Seemingly equivalent to Ashmead's Tanaemyrmex and Forel's Myrmoturba
maculatus-group - 1
-- Alitrunk profile with distinct angle (even if obtuse) between dorsum and declivity of propodeum A2
A2 {Camponotus pompeius}{Camponotus pompeius face}Majors with clypeus with distinct median carina, a sharp anterior margin with right angles laterally; large TL 15 mm plus; alitrunk profile convex with angular propodeum, from above most with a sub-rectangular posterior at transition to declivity; petiole scale quite thick; trimorphic (?) minors with distinct posteriorly narrowed heads; dark red-brown to near black
Minors with long scapes and legs; lighter brown-orange to yellow-red
brevicollis, caffer, coniceps, crawleyi, donisthorpei, etiolipes, fornasinii (?), heros, knysnae, langi, natalensis, oasium, pompeius, posticus, probativus, wellmani, varus
Seemingly equivalent to Ashmead's Dinomyrmex
pompeius-group - 12
-- Minors with square to oval heads in full face view A3
A3 {Camponotus brutus}Large, TL ca 15 mm; Minor head near rectangular
brutus, buttikeri, empedocles (?), importunus, solon, somalinus
Seemingly equivalent to Ashmead's Dinomyrmex
brutus-group - 22
-- {Camponotus acvapimensis}Small (for genus) TL Major < 10 mm; head with CI ca 100, occiput near straight, with gently rounded corners, clypeus lacking a well-defined anterior lobe; alitrunk profile interrupted shallowly convex but propodeum markedly angular, from above with a narrow posterior at transition to declivity; mostly dark near black
Minor heads sub-ovoid to square
acvapimensis, agonius, basuto, cleobulus, dicksoni, errabundus, immigrans, ligeus, maguassa, roubaudi, sacchii, thales, werthi
acvapimensis-group - 26

¤ Queen only known (possibly a pompeius-group member) Zaïre - massinissa
¤ {short description of image}Not included in the main key because the status of the species (type location Madagascar) and its possible subspecies, including those reported from South Africa, is far from clear Madagascar and dubiously Southern Africa - hova
¤ In Paramyrmamblys; TL 9.0 mm South Africa - bianconii
¤ Camponotus pulvinatusMedia worker TL 8.5-9 mm & 7-8 mm, mostly dark brown .
. Camponotus pulvinatusMinor Tanzania - pulvinatus
¤ Camponotus rubripes majorMajor only described, TL ca 15-20 mm, status uncertain as description inadequate
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¤ Camponotus rubripes minorMinor from shared location in Liberia
Sierra Leone & ? Liberia - rubripes
¤ Camponotus sexpunctatusQueen ? .
. Camponotus sexpunctatusMinor Mozambique - sexpunctatus
-- Alitrunk profile convex in a smooth elongated curve; at least dimorphic (?) minor/minima with head narrowed posteriorly but not dramatically so and without any "neck"
- maculatus-group
--
1 {Camponotus guttatus}Majors with heads longer than wide, approximately rectangular in full face view with weakly arcuate sides and an only shallowly impressed occipitum; maximum TL ca 10 mm; presently abjectus, guttatus, kersteni, minisculus and proletaria 2
-- {Camponotus maculatus}Majors with head in full face view approximately triangular, with quite strongly convex sides and deeply impressed occiptum - maculatus-complex 4
- guttatus-complex -
2 Camponotus kersteniTL 5-6 mm; body and gaster dark; gaster tergite margins with narrow pale bands; legs pale brown East Africa (? Guinea) - kersteni
-- TL 8-9 mm 3
3 {short description of image}TL 8.5 mm; ground colour pale yellow or yellow ochre, with rust or red brown areas - distal mandibles, part of scapes, posterior angles of head, bands at each suture of gaster; and dark brown areas - mass of mandibles, rest of head, dorsal areas of thorax and gaster, plus on sides of gaster; erect hairs rust but sparse except on gaster .
. {Camponotus abjectus major}Major .
. {Camponotus abjectus minor}Minor Angola; Guinea & Senegal - abjectus
-- {Camponotus guttatus major}TL Major 8 mm; major head HL 2.4 mm HW 2.0 mm; head distinctively shaped with sides only feebly arcuate; clypeus carinate with the anterior margin feebly arcuate and the corner right-angled; primarily yellow rust brown, head darker; from the description appears similar to abjectus but has the front of the face densely stippled (pointillé) and matt, the posterior of the face and alitrunk being finely reticulate-striate but weakly shiny; the scape is slender and surpasses the occiput .
. {Camponotus guttatus minor}Minor 5.25-4 mm West Africa - guttatus
-- {short description of image}TL 9.0 mm; head black or brownish, dorsal alitrunk and gaster reddish-brown; minor TL 6.5 mm, head elongated
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. {Camponotus proletaria minor} Guinea - proletaria
- maculatus-complex -
4 Camponotus fellah majorWith at least a few gular hairs on underside of head; Major TL ca 15 mm; HW 4.3 HL 3.9 mm; mostly dark brown, alitrunk yellow (particularly in minors), funiculus, petiole, rust patches on gaster .
. Camponotus fellah majorMinor Sudan, Eritrea, Egypt - fellah
-- Without any gular hairs on underside of head 5
5 TL < 11 mm 6
-- TL > 11 mm 8
6 Head and body with substantial areas brown or lighter 7
-- Head and whole body unicolorous black or nearly so 7a
7 {short description of image}TL Major 10.5 mm, Minor 7.5-8 mm; head less convex-sided and less narrowed in front, occiput less impressed; scape surpasses occiput by about one-third its own length; pilosity rusty red, sparse on alitrunk and gaster, slightly more abundant on anterior of head; head black, alitrunk and gaster brown, tibiae dark brown, mandibles & scapes blackish, femora & tarsi pale brown, trochanters, coxae, petiole and funiculus ochreous; margins of gaster segments translucent ohcreous but lateral pale spots on first two segments very dark and diffuse .
. {Camponotus traegaordhi fumeus} .
. {Camponotus traegaordhi muger minor}Minor (muger) South Africa - traegaordhi
-- {Camponotus aequatorialis minor}TL 8.9-11 mm; mandibles with 6-7 teeth, subopaque, very finely reticulate, with spaced puncturations; scapes strongly curved, quite cylindrical, surpassing the occiput by about twice their width; propodeal declivity a little shorter than the dorsum; tibia subcylindrical, with two or three denticles apically and sides feebly channeled; erect pilosity rust, quite long but sparse on the body, none on the tibiae and tarsi, pubescence very fine, very short and very spaced out all over; shiny, head, appendages and gaster brown black; occipital angles, posterior clypeus and mandible apices, plus part of the thorax of red brown; basal part of gaster, funiculi, base and apex of scapes, lower legs and part of alitrunk yellow rust, narrow transverse band on first gastral segment and base of mandibles brown. Congo Basin (?Guinea) - aequatorialis.
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Camponotus aequatorialis kohli majorSpeculatively, I have separated this as the major of the kohli variety
.
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Camponotus aequatorialis kohli minorSpeculatively, I have separated this as the minor of the kohli variety aequatorialis kohli
7a {short description of image}TL 9.5 mm; head narrower anteriorly than maculatus; petiole scale higher than long, twice as wide as high, subacuminate above, anterior face near flat; dull black, alitrunk very dark brownish-black, legs dark brown, apex of gastral segments translucent testaceous .
. {short description of image} It seems negus as presently understood encompasses several forms of which this shiny Major may be one Ethiopia south to South Africa - negus
-- Camponotus arnoldinus majorMajor TL ca 12.5 mm; propodeum somewhat angular, dorsum one-third longer than declivity; black or blackish-brown, appendages reddish ochreous (minor with alitrunk yellowish-brown)
. Camponotus arnoldinus majorMinor South Africa - arnoldinus
-- {Camponotus (Tanaemyrmex) occasus}TL 10 mm; dorsum of head and alitrunk opaque, remainder shiny; black, appendages ferruginous, gaster with pale posterior margins .
. {Camponotus (Tanaemyrmex) occasus major} .
. {Camponotus (Tanaemyrmex) occasus minor} Cape Verde Is & Senegal - occasus
- TL > 11 mm -
8 Hind tibiae without setae on the lower margin (or no more than one or two) 9
-- Hind tibiae with at least five setae on the lower margin 10
9 {Camponotus nsp CAR KP}TL 15 mm Central African Republic - new species - carensis
-- TL > 12 mm 9B
9B {Camponotus aegyptiacus}Major TL > 11 mm; poly- or trimorphic, Major only moderately sized; head & thorax uniformly dark brown, gaster with distinctive pattern of yellow-brown patches, legs almost entirely yellow. Minors more predominantly yellow brown; tibiae without setae .
. {Camponotus aegyptiacus minor} Sahel zone - aegyptiacus
-- {Camponotus (Tanaemyrmex) baynei}Major TL 10.8 mm; pilosity brownish-yellow; head and most of body blackish-brown; petiole, coxae and femora ochreous; tibiae without setae .
. {Camponotus baynei minima} South Africa - baynei
-- {Camponotus cogntus major}Major TL > 11 mm; poly- or trimorphic, Major only moderately sized; head & thorax uniformly dark brown, gaster entirely black. Minors similarly coloured
South Africa - cognatus
- Hind tibiae with at least five setae on the lower margin -
10 {Camponotus congolensis petiole{short description of image}Major TL ca 13 mm; head a little longer than wide, scape not reaching occipital margin; clypeus with median carina; head & alitrunk densely and finely reticulopunctate; petiole scale relatively thick, intermediate between scale and cuneiform (right); overall black with a silky appearance and a bluish tinge .
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{Camponotus congolensis petiole{short description of image}Minor West Africa & Congo Basin - congolensis
-- Major TL 14 mm plus 11
11 {Camponotus maculatus type form}Very variable in colour and size, enormously plastic species; type form as in photomontage - the variability is analysed separately from the species page; tibiae with setae on lower border .
. {Camponotus maculatus type form minor}Minor Pan-African, tramp - maculatus
-- {Camponotus desantii}Major TL 13 mm plus (estimate); HL 4.8 HW 3.5; head and thorax dorsum, up to the upper part of the propodeal declivity, and dorsum of first and second gastral segments black; funiculus, lower sides of thorax red or brown rust; everything else yellow; tibiae with setae
.
. {Camponotus desantii major} .
. {Camponotus desantii minor} Minor TL ca 11.0 mm, SL 2.8, posterior tibia 3.0; alitrunk elongated CAR & Benin - desantii
-- {short description of image}Probably extra-limital, Major TL ca 15 mm, maculatus-group but larger and strongly sculptured; head and alitrunk red-brown, gaster near black .
. Camponotus cognatocompressus minorMinor North Africa inc Egypt - cognatocompressus
-- {Camponotus sarmentus}Major TL 13 mm; tarsi flattened but not channeled; narrower more curved mandibles and the rouned corners to the anterior margin of the clypeus (sharp right angles in the type maculatus); black, mandibles ferruginous; funiculi, coxae and base of femur reddish-fulvous.
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. {Camponotus sarmentus major} .
. {Camponotus sarmentus minor} Minor TL ca 8-9 mm, SL 3.0, posterior tibia 3.0; head shape is much shorter behind the eyes Uganda & Sudan - sarmentus
return to key - Alitrunk profile with distinct angle (even if obtuse) between dorsum and declivity of propodeum -
12 {Camponotus pompeius}{Camponotus pompeius face}Large TL 15 mm plus; petiole scale quite thick, usually cuneiform; minors with distinct posteriorly narrowed heads; Majors dark red-brown to near black; Minors lighter brown-orange to yellow-red
pompeius-group - 13
- miscellaneous species -
12a {Camponotus oasium minor}Major TL 16 mm; Minor TL ca 7 mm; dorsum of petiole steeply rounded and with a longitudinal weak impression (at least in minors); head large, domed and short; appendages relatively short and slender; almost entirely matt; major uniform reddish-brown, with the head and gaster often blackish. Minors with prismatic tibiae which have a line of short setae Sahel zone into western Asia - oasium
-- {short description of image}Minor only in original description; TL 15 mm (size similar to etiolipes) .
. {Camponotus brevicollis minor} .
. {Camponotus brevicollis major}Major (new finding) TL ca 18 mm, HW 5 HL 5.3 Congo Basin (north?) - brevicollis
-- {Camponotus doniisthorpei} majorMajor previously unknown only; TL ca 9.5 mm, SL 2.5; minor described as dull castaneous brown, with alitrunk and appendages lighter .
. {Camponotus (Tanaemyrmex) donsithorpei minor}{Camponotus doniisthorpei}Minor only; TL 8.5-9 mm, SL 3.1 mm; castaneous brown, with alitrunk and appendages lighter Cameroun & Congo - donisthorpei
--
{Camponotus (Tanaemyrmex) varus}Minor only known, TL 11 to 12.5 mm; entirely dark brown
Major, TL ca 18 mm, shown from the Central African Republic is a probable major; associated with the minor from the same location, which differs somewhat primarily being larger TL ca 14.5 mm; the head has the distinctive triangular elevation on the clypeus
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Camponotus varus minor
Angola & Congo Basin - varus
- pompeius-group -
13 Head wider than long 13a
-- Head not wider than long 14
13a {Camponotus wellmani major}Major TL ca 18 mm; head noticeably wider than long HW 6.5 HL 5.5; petiole scale convex on both sides; body with long silky dark red hairs all over; basically brownish-black with slight brown tint, appendages lighter; minor clypeus with distinctive anteriorly raised median carina .
. {Camponotus wellmani minor}Minor TL 12-13 mm, HL 3.0 SL 5; frontal area transverse, rhomboid; frontal carinae close together, sinuous and slightly divergent; head regularly narrowing from the anterior border to the occiput, sides regularly but only mildly convex; eyes large and centered at mid-length of the head; alitrunk elongated and slender, mildly convex; propodeum with declivity shorter than dorsum; petiole scale cuneiform, convex on both faces, near truncated at the summit, slightly higher than long; with long silky, sharp, red brown hairs spaced across whole body, rising out of punctules; pubescence sparse, fine, reddish, more abundant on the rear of the head; tibiae and scapes with oblique short but abundant rusty pilosity. Southern Africa & Congo Basin (Guinea?) - wellmani
¤ {Camponotus (Tanaemyrmex crawleyi}{short description of image}Minor only, TL 8.5 mm; Major (new specimens) TL > 15 mm Cameroun - crawleyi
¤ Camponotus conicepsMinor TL 11 mm; head conical narrowing behind the eyes (as wellmani, but much shorter); clypeus with strong median carina; eyes somewhat bigger and more convex; matt and densely transversely striate; whole body with long quite abundant rust pilosity; head & scapes dark red-brown; rest progressively lighter rearwards, gaster with lateral yellow border. Seemingly only the minor is known, it may be a simple synonym of wellmani Congo - coniceps
14 Scapes surpassing occiput by at least one-quarter of own length or more 15
-- Scape not reaching or only just surpassing occiput 19
15 Camponotus knysnae majorScapes surpass occiput by one-quarter of own length; Major TL 15.5-16.3 mm; head triangular posteriorly widest and twice width at anterior margin; eyes set about mid-point of head; tibiae compressed; mandibles shiny but coarsely punctured; erect hairs fulvous sparse on head and alitrunk quite abundant on gaster; head and alitrunk nitidulous gaster shiny; black but funiculus, lower lateral alitrunk, petiole and basal third of femora translucent testaceous .
. Camponotus knysnae minor South Africa - knysnae
-- Scapes surpassing occiput by at least one third of own length 16
16 {Camponotus langi}Major TL 12.5-14 mm; overall shape narrow and elongated; head dark brown, body brown, petiole and legs yellow-brown .
. {Camponotus langi jejunus minor}Minor Zaïre (Madagascar?) - langi
-- TL > 14 mm 17
17 Camponotus herosMajor TL 16 mm, HL 4.7 HW 3.6; (cf etiolipes, sic longipes but more slender and slimmer) eyes quite large set at two-thirds point of head; petiole higher than long; matt, head finely and densely reticulo-punctate, gaster transversely shagreened; body with long golden red erect hairs, those on gaster directed posteriorly; all over very fine rust short pubescence; brownish-black, gaster segments narrowly bordered yellow, funiculus, condylar bulbs, ends of scapes, trochanters, lower femora and petiole, hind tarsi and apex of gaster rust Tanzania - heros
-- Eyes set at or just behind mid-point of face 18
18 Camponotus natalensis majorMajor TL 14-17 mm; head one-eighth longer than wide; eyes set just behind mid-point; alitrunk profile with mesonotum more convex and raised above level of hind margin of pronotum; entirely dull, relatively coarsely sculptured; whole body, legs and antennae with fairly long abundant reddish yellow pubescence; erect hairs long, fulvous and fairly plentiful, absent from genae; black, apical borders of gaster narrowly testaceous and translucent, funiculus and tarsi dark brown South Africa - natalensis
-- {Camponotus probativus}Major TL 16-18 mm, HL = HW; sides of head not very convex; petiole with very convex anterior and flat posterior; tibiae strongly compressed, dorsal, inner and outer faces canaliculate; pilosity brownish-red, absent from legs, very sparse on head; black, petiole dark yellowish brown, appendages dull reddish-ochreous, gaster with a small dull ochreous spot on each side of three basal segments .
. {Camponotus probativus}Major Mozambique - probativus
- Major scape not reaching or hardly surpassing occiput -
19 TL ca 15 mm 20
-- TL > 15 mm 21
20 {Camponotus pompeius}{short description of image}TL 15 mm; dark brown .
. {Camponotus pompeius major} .
. {Camponotus pompeius minor} West Africa & Congo Basin - pompeius
-- Camponotus fornainii majorTL 15 mm, head near square, HW 4.2 HL 4.3; cf cognatus head wider less narrowed in front, without erect hairs on genae; long fine decumbent pubescence all over but sparse; tibiae with numerous ventral setae Mozambique - fornasinii
21 {Camponotus caffer}TL 16 mm; head, alitrunk and petiole fuscous, gaster with basal segments with a small spot laterally, appendages dark rust; dull, scantily pilose and scarcely pubescent
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. {Camponotus caffer major} .
. {Camponotus caffer minor} South Africa - caffer
-- {Camponotus etiolipes}TL major ca 16-17 mm?, minor 15.5-16 mm; major morphology like maculatus rel to minor; head much longer than maculatus deeply emarginate posteriorly; dull, finely shagreened and punctured, clypeus with numerous hairs pits; major almost totally coal-black, appendages piceous to reddish-brown .
-- {Camponotus etiolipes major} .
-- {Camponotus etiolipes minor} Southern Africa tropical forests - etiolipes
-- {short description of image}Very large, Major TL > 16 mm; Minor ca 10.5; erect pilosity very long, sparse on alitrunk; colour predominantly yellow-brown .
. {Camponotus posticus major} .>
. {Camponotus posticus minor}Minor eastern Zaïre & Kenya - posticus
-- {Camponotus caesar type }Minor TL ca 13.0-14.5 mm; with long legs and antennae; fairly uniform reddish-brown, gaster variably darker; petiole scale in profile broadly triangular, in front view with a rounded apex
Angola, Cameroun,. Congo - Camponotus (Myrmoxygenys) caesar
-- {Camponotus nsp cameroun FK minor }Minor; TL 14.5-15.5 mm; sharply contrasting dark head, often with dark legs; petiole scale in profile narrowly triangular, in front view with a sharp apex Cameroun - Camponotus (Myrmoxygenys) caesar imperator
return to key - Minors with square to ovoid faces -
22 Large, TL > 12 mm; Minor head near rectangular - brutus, buttikeri, empedocles (?), importunus, solon brutus-group - 23
-- Smaller, TL Major < 10 mm; Minor heads sub-ovoid to square; alitrunk profile interrupted shallowly convex but propodeum markedly angular; mostly dark near black
acvapimensis-group - 26
23 TL < 14 mm 24
-- TL > 14 mm 25
24 Camponotus empedocles majorTL 10.0-13.6 mm; cf thales but head with more prominent strongly angular occipital lobes, also more distinctly punctured in front of eyes and below frontal carinae; scapes just failing to reach occiptum; all black except apical margins of gaster testaceous, legs and scapes dark brown .
. Camponotus empedocles minorMinor Southern Africa - empedocles
-- {Camponotus buttikeri}Major TL 13 mm (cf natalensis but smaller); head highly domed in anterior view; scapes reach occiput; very small petiole scale; head and alitrunk dull due to microscopic reticulation, mandibles shiny; black appendages rust or lighter .
. {Camponotus buttikeri major} South Africa - buttikeri
25 {short description of image}Major TL 18 mm; HW significantly less than HL; colour generally like solon but larger and with shiny smooth mandibles; legs with abundant semi-decumbent short hairs .
. {Camponotus lycurgus media}Media/minor, TL ca 14 mm West Africa & Congo Basin - lycurgus
-- Major HW near equal to HL 25a
25a {Camponotus brutus}Major TL > 15 mm; head distinctly wider than long; declivity of propodeum obtusely angled, petiole with blunt dorsal border; occiput with numerous piliferous points, mandibles smooth; dark red-brown, extremities orange .
. {Camponotus brutus major}Major .
. {Camponotus brutus minor}Media/minor Western Africa (Angola to Sierra Leone) - brutus
-- Camponotus solon majorMajor TL 15 mm; head just longer than wide, petiole with sharp dorsal border; mandibles striated, occiput smooth; dark brown, head near black .
. {Camponotus solon minor}Media/minor Angola and Congo Basin - solon
--NEW Camponotus chilonMajor TL 13.5 mm; head just longer than wide, petiole with sharp dorsal border; mandibles striated, occiput very finely spiculate giving dull appearance; dark brown, head near black .
. {Camponotus chilon minor}Media/minor West Africa - chilon
-- Camponotus importunusTL 14-16 mm; cf caffer but more compressed with thinner scale and erect hairs on genae; petiole scale thin; minor head only moderately narrowed behind; colour like caffer or pale cognatus but with diffuse brownish yellow lateral spots on basal three segments of gaster, head dull sometimes more rusty-red .
. Camponotus importunusMinor Southern Africa - importunus
-- {Camponotus somalinus major}TL 12-15 mm; Major head large and occiput strongly scalloped; clypeus with a strong carina and large rectangular anterior lobe; mandibles very finely striated; entirely black, appendages variably reddish.
Minor - head narrower, oval and occiput hardly scalloped
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. {Camponotus somalinus minor} Somalia to Congo Basin - somalinus
return to key - Petiole scale squamiform, thickness variable but without highly convex anterior face - smaller TL soldier < 10 mm; minor heads sub-ovoid to square; mostly dark near black - acvapimensis-group -
26 Petiole scale thick with rounded apex in profile 27
-- Petiole scale squamiform tapering to sharp apex 28
27 {Camponotus errabundus}Major TL 7.4 mm; (cf werthi) scapes not reaching occiput, occipital margin convex; pronotum nearly three times as wide as long; propodeal dorsum very narrow; petiole scale thick but 2.5 x higher than thick; whitish pubescence very short, sparse and decumbent, erect hairs long and whitish but very few; black, appendages mainly ferruginous South Africa - errabundus
-- {Camponotus werthi}TL 6.5-8.2 mm; scapes surpass occiput by length of first funiculus segment; hind margin of head straight; pronotum twice as wide as long; propodeum dorsum one-third longer than wide; pubescence very short and inconspicuous, erect hairs sparse long fairly pointed and not thick; shining black, tarsi dark brown .
. {Camponotus werthi skafei major} .
. {Camponotus werthi minor} South Africa - werthi
28 TL > 10 mm 29
-- TL maximum 10 mm 30
29 Camponotus immigrans majorTL 11 mm; sculpturation of dense reticulo-puncturation; with long grey-white erect pilosity; long pubescence on the gaster; base colour dull brown-red, legs and gaster reddish-yellow .
. Camponotus immigrans minorMinor Cameroun - immigrans
-- camponotus thales minorTL 9-11 mm, HL about the same as HW; head trapezoidal not much narrower anteriorly, middle half of sides straight, occiput moderately impressed; scapes just surpassing occiput; alitrunk short and robust, propodeum dorsum very narrow; shiny, erect hairs yellowish, none on sides of head; head black, most of rest reddish brown, anterior of gaster paler .
. camponotus thales majorMajor .
. camponotus thales minorMinor South Africa - thales
30 {Camponotus maguassa major}TL 9-10 mm; very dark dull appearance with dense coarse, fulvous red pilosity .
. {Camponotus maguassa minor} Congo Basin - maguassa
-- TL < 10 mm 31
31 TL 9-10 mm 32
-- TL < 9 mm 33
32 Camponotus ligeus majorTL 9.0 mm; scapes surpass occiput by about four times own breadth; propodeum longer than meso- and metanotum together, dorsum longer than abrupt declivity; erect hairs scanty, yellow; black, shiny, appendages dark brown to red (cf natalensis but smaller and more compact, shinier) .
. Camponotus ligeus minor Ethiopia - ligeus
-- Camponotus sacchiiTL 9.5 mm, HW 3.5 HL 3.3 SL 2.4; cf natalensis ssp corvus, clypeus obtusely carinate, with truncate anterior lobe; occiput more deeply impressed, scape reaches to two-thirds of distance from eye to occiput; piceous with appendages ferruginous Somalia - sacchii
33 {Camponotus acvapimensis}TL ca 8.5 mm; clypeus without or only a short, posterior, median carina; quite short and thickset; fine yellowish pilosity; all over dull pitch .
. {Camponotus acvapimensis major} .
. {Camponotus acvapimensis minor} Sub-Saharan forest in sunlit ground - acvapimensis
-- TL max 8.0 mm 34
34 TL ca 8.0 mm 35
-- TL < 8.0 mm 36
35 {Camponotus basuto}TL 8.0 mm; scapes surpass occiput; propodeum angular and high, narrow in dorsal view; brownish-black, apex of gaster testaceous, anterior of head and appendages rust to brown-red (related to cleobulus) .
. {Camponotus basuto}minor worker Lesotho - basuto
-- Camponotus cleobulusTL 8.0 mm, HL 2.2 HW 2.1; eyes small; sculpture as thales but more puncturations between frontal carinae and larger on mandibles; black, gaster with posterior margins yellowish; mandibles reddish, appendages brown South Africa - cleobulus
36 {Camoponotus agonius}TL 4-7 mm, scapes short; brown-black, fairly shiny; profile of propodeum a smooth curve .
. {Camponotus agonius minor} Congo Basin (?Guinea) - agonius
-- Profile of propodeum distinctly angular 37
37 {Camponotus roubaudi}TL 6-6.5 mm; less shiny; scapes short; dorsum of propodeum one-third shorter than declivity, slightly lowered and curve into declivity obtuse; brown-black but head darker .
. {Camponotus roubaudi major}
. {Camponotus roubaudi minor} Congo Basin - roubaudi
-- {Camponotus dicksoni}TL 7.5 mm; (cf cleobolus) scapes reach occiput; shiny, with just visible microscopic reticulation, plus few large hair-pits; a few yellowish hairs on head, six on pronotum, four on middle of propodeum, two on each side of petiole; brownish-black, appendages reddish-brown, coxae and base of femur yellowish white .
. {Camponotus dicksoni minor}Minor worker South Africa - dicksoni
-- {Camponotus minisculua major}TL 6-8.5 mm; minor with near square head; quite dark brown .
. {Camponotus minisculus minima} Tanzania - minusculus - new status
Contents Genus page
© 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2013, 2014 - Brian Taylor CBiol FSB FRES
11, Grazingfield, Wilford, Nottingham, NG11 7FN, U.K.

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