The Ants of Africa
SUBFAMILY MYRMICINAE - Genus Pheidole
provisional key to major workers of all African species - Section 3
Genus Pheidole Introduction

Provisional key to species and separable forms - Section 3

return to key major postpetiole with blunt lateral processes - Hypostomal teeth
(non-type)
18 Major head completely striate; almost all minors have a small pedicel with a semi-globular postpetiole
Section 4
-- Major near ovoid with deeply impressed occiput and varying degrees of sculpture on the head; minors with enlarged bulb-shaped postpetioles, in dorsal view posterior much wider.
19
19 Major head an elongated oval HL > HW 20 .
-- Major head with HL = HW 23 .
. buchholzi-group (part) - buchholzi, ascara and Gabon 143 --
20 Major head with longitudinal striations over whole of frons, some transitioning into arcuate striation on the occiput
21 .
-- Major head with occiput smooth
22 .
21 Base colour orange-brown 21A
.
-- Base colour dark brown
21B .
21A {Pheidole Gabon 143}
TL ca 7.8 mm, HL 2.60, HW 2.38, SL 1.43, PW 0.90; CI 91, SI 60, EI 0.1 (EL/HL); head elongated with weakly curved sides; whole head densely sculptured with striations for whole length, those on the front curving outward from base to apex, cross webbing and underlying spiculations between striations, clypeus with strong median carina and lateral carinae, mandibles striate; whole of alitrunk sculptured in an irregular pattern, propodeal spines acute triangles pointing vertically upwards;  pedicel and gaster spiculate, postpetiole large and roughly triangular from above but without lateral processes; dark chestnut brown, with orange legs, mandible near black; short, quite coarse, orange erect hairs on head, postpetiole and gaster
. Gabon 143
. {Pheidole Gabon 143 minor}
TL ca 4.7 mm, HL 1.15, HW 0.81, SL 1.35, PW 0.60; CI 72 SI 170; petiole moderately enlarged but with flat lower face and shallowly arcuate dorsum
Gabon - Gabon 143 .
-- {Pheidole senilifrons major}
TL 4-4.5 mm, HL 1.60, HW 1.45, SL 0.80, PW 0.55; CI 89, SI 54; occiput with fine longituidinal rugae and little reticulation or transverse striation; with propodeal spines no more than moderately long, triangular, sharp and upturned; red-brown, gaster only slightly darker
.
. {Pheidole senilifrons minor}
TL 1.8-2.3-2.7 mm, HL 0.69, HW 0.52, SL 0.80, PW 0.40; CI 75, SI 167; scape without erect hairs; uniform yellow-brown, mandibles yellowish
Congo Basin - senilifrons .
-- Pheidole buchholzi
TL 6.8 mm, HL 2.54, HW 2.36, SL 1.40, PW 1.0; CI 94, SI 60; head longer than wide, narrowest behind; scape reaches beyond mid-point; head clearly but finely sculptured over full length; reddish or lighter yellowish
. .
. Pheidole buchholzi minor
TL 3.7-3.8 mm, HL 0.88, HW 0.67, SL 1.25, PW 0.5; CI 76, SI 177; head longer than wide; scape surpassing the occiput; reddish or lighter yellowish
West Africa & Congo Basin - buchholzi .
21B Pheidole nsp Tanzania Zigi major
TL ca. 6.4 mm, HL 2.24, HW 1.97, SL 1.18, PW 1.16; CI 88, SI 60
. ns p Tanzania Zigi
. Pheidole nsp Tanzania Zigiminor
TL ca 3.2 mm, HL 0.83, HW 0.67, SL 1.20, PW 0.41; CI 82, SI 175
Tanzania - n.sp Tanzania Zigi .
. Occiput unsculptured -- .
23 TL 7.0 mm 24 .

-- TL > 7.0 mm 25
24 {Pheidole speculifera major face}
TL 7.5-8.0 mm, HL 2.80, HW 2.68, SL 1.34, PW 1.2; CI 96, SI 50; head with no more than weak longitudinal striations anteriorly, occiput with matt appearance; postpetiole near hexagonal in dorsal view; yellow-brown to brown
. .
. {Pheidole speculifera minor}
TL 3.42 mm, HL 0.86, HW 0.65, SL 1.17, PW 0.47; CI 74, SI 164; clypeus with a fine median carina; petiole with a low node flattened dorsally in profile; postpetiole with a domed profile and ovoid in dorsal view; sculpturation only of spiculation on the propodeum, lateral mesonotum and the petiole; dull brownish-yellow.
Pan-African - speculifera .
-- Pheidole occipitalis major
TL 7.5-8.0 mm; HL 2.32, HW 2.32, SL 1.25, PW 1.0; CI 100, SI 55; sides of head feebly arcuate; sparse erect hairs, no pubescence; head and alitrunk brownish-red, rest darker blackish-brown; postpetiole and base of gaster smooth or nearly so
.
. Pheidole occipitalis minor
TL 3-4 mm; HL 0.87, HW 0.70, SL 1.02, PW 0.41; CI 87, SI 166; sides of head feebly arcuate; sparse erect hairs, no pubescence; head entirely shiny; head and alitrunk brownish-red, gaster brown
West Africa - occipitalis .
-- {Pheidole ruspolii major}
Larger TL ca 8 mm; HL 2.8, HW 2.8, SL 1.2, PW 1.24; CI 100, SI 44; occiput largely smooth and shiny.
.
. {Pheidole ruspolii minor}
TL ca 4.5 mm, HL 1.09, HW 0.87, SL 1.00, PW 0.62; CI 83 SI 140; base colour piceous (pitch black), appendages more reddish; head ovate, genae with longitudinal rugae, mandibles striate; propodeum dorsum sulcate, spines triangular and obtuse
Eastern & Southern Africa - ruspolii
22 Pheidole ascara major
TL 7.3 mm; HL 1.88, HW 1.70, SL 0.82, PW 1.08; CI 87, SI 50; head longer than wider, markedly narrowed at occiput; scape failing to reach mid-point; chestnut, occiput smooth and shiny; postpetiole from above near-rhomboidal with distinct transverse sculpture
Note no known minors
Benin & Ethiopia - ascara
. TL < 7.0 mm --
25 {Pheidole costauriensis}
TL > 5.3 mm - 8.0 mm; drawn major, TL 8.11 mm, HL 2.91, HW 2.86, SL 1.37, PW 1.21; CI 98, SI 48; head mostly smooth, dorsum shiny; dark red-brown, gaster and anterior of head with mandibles darker
. costauriensis
. {Pheidole costauriensis minor}TL
4.00-4.36 mm, HL 0.87, HW 0.67, SL 1.01, PW 0.45; CI 67, SI 150 (original description gives a smaller size); postpetiole exceptionally large and bulbous both dorsally and laterally; clypeus medially carinate, shallowly emarginate anteriorly; longitudinal rugae on the genae; petiole produced laterally and the anterior of the peduncle; head, pronotum and gaster; mesonotum, propodeum and pedicel spiculate; erect hairs sparse and relatively short; head and alitrunk brown/dark red-brown, gaster darker to black, appendages lighter with tarsi and antennal clubs brown
West Africa - costauriensis .
-- Pheidole neutralis major
TL (type) ca 6.3 mm, HL 2.72, HW 2.54, SL 1.31, PW 0.95; CI 92, SI 52; sides of head feebly arcuate; sparse erect hairs, no pubescence; head and alitrunk brownish-red, rest darker blackish-brown; separable by the spiculate sculpture on the postpetiole and base of the gaster
TL Cameroun (ascara?) ca 7.3 mm, HL 2.75, HW 2.70, SL 1.40, PW 1.15,
. neutralis
. Pheidole neutralis minor
TL ca 3.6 mm, HL 0.92, HW 0.75, SL 1.22, PW 1.00; CI 82, SI 162; blackish brown, appendages paler; more strongly sculptured than the type occipitalis, pronotum dorsum almost entirely sculptured
West Africa - neutralis .
-- Pheidole vanderveldi major
TL ca 6.5 mm; HL 2.50, HW 2.06, SL 1.20, PW 1.05; CI 90, SI 54; similar to speculifera but scape extending back to posterior third of head; sides of head only slightly convex; dark brown, legs paler, tarsi and funiculus rusty red
.
. Pheidole vanderveldi minor
TL 3.9-4.5 mm, HL 1.04, HW 0.88, SL 1.28, PW 0.58, CI 85, SI 141; similar to speculifera but dark brown/black, legs paler, tarsi and funiculus rusty red; very distinctive short and coarse dark erect hairs
Southern Africa - vanderveldi .
-- {Pheidole crassinoda}
TL ca 7.5 mm, HL 2.2, HW 2.2, SL 1.15, PW 1.0; CI 100, SI 60; petiole profile narrow & squamous, postpetiole from above with arcuate anterior margin and obtuse lateral angles; sparse pilosity; piceous (pitch black) with anterior of head and coxae dull ferruginous, apparently variable to dark mahogany; head finely spiculate and near matt, fine striations reaching back the length of the scapes
.
. {Pheidole crassinoda minor}

TL 4.0-4.4 mm, HL 1.07, HW 0.85, SL 1.45, PW 0.64; CI 81, SI 174; base colour dark brown, appendages more reddish; head ovate, genae with longitudinal rugae, mandibles striate; propodeum dorsum simply finely spiculate, spines minute and triangular
Eastern & Southern Africa - crassinoda
-- Pheidole cubangensis major

TL ca 9.5 mm, HL 2.83, HW 2.83, SL , PW 1.16, CI 100, SI 44. Head cordiform in full face-view, strongly convex dorsum in lateral view; possibly due to damage, the mandibles have a wavy outer margin; pronotum wide and alitrunk quite stocky, deep metanotal groove with transverse rugae; head and alitrunk with dullish appearance, frons with fine striations reaching back to the occiput but very fine after the mid-point, occiput with minute dense spiculate ground sculpture.
Angola - cubangensis .
.

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Genus Pheidole Introduction

Contents MYRMICINAE Introduction
2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2013, 2014, 2016, 2017 - Brian Taylor CBiol FRSB FRES
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