The Ants of Africa
provisional key to major workers of all African species - Section 6
Genus Pheidole Introduction
return to key Alitrunk with low or no mesonotal welt
-- Hypostomal teeth
Head distinctly longer than wide fully striate and parallel-sided Section 7
-- Head length and width near equal 36

HL near equal to HW --
36 Head fully striate and parallel-sided; postpetiole squamiform (with anterior ventral process, smaller process on anterior ventral petiole); funiculi filiform 37
-- Head never fully striate and with at least weakly convex sides 38
- saxicola-group - philippi & saxicola - major head fully striate and parallel-sided --
37 {Pheidole saxicola major}
TL ca 8.0 mm (Wheeler, 1922, had 5.5-6.0 mm, other sizes match), HL ca 3.0, HW ca 2.8, SL ca 1.4, PW 1.33; CI 89, SI 50; dark ferruginous red, extremities darker brown to blackish
. {Pheidole saxicola minor}
TL 2.7 to 3 mm, HL 0.79, HW 0.71, SL 0.86, PW 0.45; CI 92, SI 120; head subrectangular, as broad in front as behind, with straight, subparallel sides, rounded posterior corners and nearly straight posterior border; eyes convex, at the middle of the sides; mandibles rather large, deflected at the tip, with denticulate apical borders and two larger terminal teeth; clypeus distinctly carinate, with the anterior border very feebly sinuate in the middle; antennal scapes extending one-third their length beyond the posterior corners of the head; promesonotum profile convex; propodeal dorsum a little longer than the declivity; spines slender, acute, erect, about half as long as their interval; petiole slender, twice as long as broad, scarcely broader behind than in front, with the sides only very faintly concave; node transverse, its border distinctly notched in the middle; postpetiole twice as broad as the petiole, as long as broad, subglobose, not toothed on the ventral side; gaster about as large as the head; shining; mandibles subopaque, finely striatopunctate; sides of head delicately longitudinally rugulose and reticulate; alitrunk, petiole, and postpetiole finely and densely punctate, opaque; upper surface of pronotum and postpetiole smooth and shining; gaster and legs shining, sparsely punctate; erect hairs fine yellowish; scapes, like the legs, with numerous oblique hairs; brown; head darker above and behind; gaster, except the edges of the segments, middle portions of legs, fore coxae, and usually also the pronotum and upper surfaces of the petiolar nodes, darker than the posterior portion of the thorax.
Zare - saxicola
. Head never fully striate and not parallel-sided .
38 {Ph costauriensis pedicel}{Pheidole crassinoda face}Head cordiform (heart-shaped); propodeal spines upturned, stout and blunt; postpetiole profile globular, in dorsal view wider than long, hexagonal with rounded lateral prominences 40
-- {Ph megacephala pedicel}{Pheidole megacephala face & pedicel}Head in full-face view with only moderately convex sides; mandibles relatively slender, with at most reduced teeth or denticles; funiculus segments quadrate; postpetiole trapezoidal but without elongated lateral prominences, ventrally concave, giving profile a somewhat globular appearance 43
39 {Pheidole picata major}
TL ca 3.5 mm; head shape distinct - West African & Congo Basin records dubious
. {Pheidole picata minor}
TL ca 2,7 mm, HL 0.60, HW 0.49, SL 0.65, PW 0.32; CI 82, SI 119; small red brown with evenly ovoid head and the minute propodeal spines
Madagascar - picata
- crassinoda-group - aurivilli, costauriensis, crassinoda, impressifrons, melancholica & punctulata --
40 Colour dark brown to black 41
-- Colour lighter 42
41 pheidole melancholica
TL 4.3 mm, HL 1.55, HW 1.5, SL 0.75, PW 0.70; CI 97, SI 50; posterior of head striate and matt, except for shiny areas on vertex; black or very dark brown with anterior of head and sides of mesonotum red-brown
. Pheidole melancholica
. pheidole melancholica minor
TL 3 mm, HL 0.67, HW 0.59, SL 0.67, PW 0.39; CI 92, SI 110; head longer and more rounded posteriorly; dorsum of alitrunk more strongly sculptured; propodeum longer with stronger spines; black or very dark brown, appendages and mandibles brownish.
West Africa - melancholica
-- {Pheidole aurivillii major}
TL 4.6-5.0 mm, HL 1.44, HW 1.44, SL 0.88, PW 0.64; CI 100, SI 61; occipitum matt with rugulo-reticulation; dorsum of propodeum a third longer than wide; major and minor brown with reddish appendages (originally mistaken for punctulata by Mayr).
. aurivilli
. {Pheidole aurivillii minor}
TL ca 4.0 mm, HL 0.75, HW 0.66, SL 0.88, PW 0.44; CI 88, SI 124; scapes surpass occiput by about two-fifths their length; funiculus segments generally longer than wide; whole of body and tibiae with long pilosity; brown with reddish appendages.
West Africa & Congo Basin - aurivillii
- Colour brown or lighter --
42 {Pheidole rotundata major}
TL 5.8-6.2 mm, HL 1.89, HW 2.0, SL 0.67, PW 0.95; CI 109, SI 43; head widest in posterior fourth
. rotundata
. {Pheidole rotundata minor}
TL 3.0-3.2 mm, HL 0.68, HW 0.59, SL 0.65, PW 0.38; CI 90, SI 110; like punctulata but darker & a little larger; sides of head more strongly striated, frontal area more wider and more angular behind; pronotum with transverse raised dark area; propodeum and sides of mesonotum more strongly reticulate; generally brownish to reddish-brown
Southern & eastern Africa - rotundata
-- {Pheidole impressifrons major}
Type TL ca 4.7 mm, HL 1.47, HW 1.53, SL 0.70, PW 0.77; CI 104, SI 46
West African TL < 5.0 mm, proportions similar; colour brown to testaceous, appendages not significantly different
. impressifrons
{Pheidole impressifrons minor}
TL 2.43 mm, HL 0.68, HW 0.62, SL 0.72, PW 0.39; CI 81, SI 123; alitrunk almost all over spiculate, fainter on the dorsal and lateral pronotum;.red-brown, gaster darker but seemingly with diostinctive pale patches (also on major), appendages lighter.
Nigeria & Cameroun (atrocior form) - impressifrons
-- Pheidole irritans
Minor only known - original description inadequate
TL 2.7 mm vs punctulata 3.0 mm; HW 0.6 vs 0.67; HL 0.62 vs 0.71; PW 0.35 vs 0.41. Postpetiole L = W; punctulata L < W; CI 89 vs 89; SI 118 vs 107
South Africa - irritans
return to key Head in full-face view with only moderately convex sides
megacephala-group - albidula, aurivilli, corticola, jordanica, maufei, megacephala, mentita, minima, nigeriensis (species B), nkomoana (species E), pallidula, picata, rotundata, squalida, tricarinata, and species A
43 {Ph species B alitrunk profile}TL < 3.4 mm; alitrunk profile smoothly domed, as is propodeal profile, propodeal spines reduced to sharp denticles 44
-- TL > 3.4 mm 50
- minima-subgroup - corticicola, decarinata, minima, nigeriensis (species B), tricarinata, and species A --
44 Scapes and frontal carinae not or barely reaching midpoint of face 45
-- Frontal carinae reaching at least mid-point or posterior one-third of face 47
45 {short description of image}
TL 4.2-4.5, type ca 5.0 mm, HL 1.57, HW 1.64, SL 0.79, PW 0.79; CI 106, SI  48; in profile anterior of head deeper than posterior; promesonotum with very convex profile; propodeal teeth small directed backwards and upwards; pilosity sparse of long yellowish semi-erect hairs; mandibles and posterior of head very shiny, rest less so due to reticulo-striation; dark reddish-brown to light brownish-red, head always darker than alitrunk;

. {Pheidole punctulata minor}
TL 2.7-3.0 mm, HL 0.74, HW 0.68, SL 0.74, PW 0.40; CI 92, SI 120; mostly smooth and relatively shiny, propodeum dull and reticulate; variable brown to yellowish-brown
Pan-African - punctulata
-- TL no more than 5 mm 46
46 Pheidole tricarinata
TL 2.2 mm; HL 20% > HW; frontal carinae very divergent and only one-quarter of length of scape, no scrobes, scape surpasses mid-point of face; post-petiole unusually small in width and height; head with fine and somewhat spaced longitudinal striations which reach occipital border, rest of body mostly smooth; mostly pale yellow, anterior of clypeus and mandibles darker
Minor unknown
Guinea - tricarinata
-- {Pheidole species A}TL 2.89 mm, HL 1.18, HW 0.93, SL 0.50, PW 0.44; CI 93, SI 54; dorsum of head and entire alitrunk densely spiculate in the minor, but head only faintly spiculate in the major; propodeal spines of major short and acute; erect hairs moderately abundant; orange, gaster very dark brown .
. {Pheidole species A major}
CAR major TL ca 3.4 mm, HL 1.2, HW 1.1, CI 92, SL 0.62, SI 60, PW 0.52 
. crinensis
. {Pheidole crinensis minor}
TL 1.9 mm, HL 0.47, HW 0.42, SL 0.47, PW 0.26; CI 90, SI 112; dorsum of head and entire alitrunk densely spiculate; erect hairs moderately abundant; orange, gaster very dark brown.
West Africa - new species - crinensis
- Frontal carinae reaching at least mid-point of head --
47 Scapes and/or frontal carinae not surpassing two-thirds of face 48
-- Scapes and frontal carinae reaching at least posterior quarter of face 49
48 {Pheidole nigeriensis major}
Major TL 2.43 mm, HL 0.89, HW 0.81, SL 0.42, PW 0.37; CI 91, SI 52; frontal carinae and scape reaching the posterior third of face and carinae delimiting shallow scrobes; smooth and shiny, head except vertex and sides of alitrunk matt, finely granulo-punctate with longitudinal striations of lateral alitrunk (as minima); erect pilosity quite long and quite abundant; yellow with brownish tinge
. nigeriensis
. {Pheidole nigeriensis minor}
TL 2.0-2.2, HL 0.48, HW 0.44, SL 0.44, PW 0.28; CI 89, SI 100; short and stocky overall; head in full-face very relatively square, eyes fairly flat, fine nuchal collar; propodeal spines very short but sharp [no original description]; shiny except densely spiculate lateral alitrunk and propodeum; darker than major, legs and funiculi golden-yellow
West Africa - [species B] nigeriensis
-- {short description of image}
TL 3.2-3.4 mm, HL 1.10, HW 1.10, SL 0.60, PW 0.46; CI 100, SI 55; head with quite strongly scalloped occipitum, sides convex, frontal notch deep and contiguous with occipital groove, clypeus without a median carina; frontal carina very divergent and as wide apart as long, hardly reaching mid-point of face, scape reaches posterior third of head; pronotum with angular sides, propodeum with dorsum and declivity strongly bordered; head mostly smooth and shiny; body with long erect hairs, irregularly spaced but abundant; red-brown, gaster darker
. decarinata
. Pheidole decarinata minor
TL 2.0-2.4 mm, HL 0.54, HW 0.48, SL 0.56, PW 0.34; CI 86, SI 115; head rectangular slightly longer than wide, posterior angles very rounded, occiptal border straight and weakly impressed (?); eyes set at mid-length and about one-quarter the length of the head; scape surpasses occiput by about one-fifth its length, segments 4-6 of funiculus wider than long, club with apical segment as long as two preceding together; promesonotum smoothly arcuate; propodeum with rectangular dorsum, longer than wide, almost flat and sub-bordered.angles dentate; head, pedicel and gaster, blackish brown; alitrunk and appendages pale reddish brown
Sahel zone - decarinata
49 Pheidole corticicola major
TL 3.0 mm HL slightly > HW; frontal carinae reach the posterior quarter of the head; sides of head very convex; head striate in anterior three-quarter, smooth posteriorly; yellow-red to dull brown-red, margin of mandibles and anterior border of the clypeus brown-black; with abundant long erect pilosity all over
. corticicola
. Pheidole corticicola minor
TL 2.3-2.5 mm, HL 0.54, HW 0.48, SL 0.75, PW 0.32; CI 87, SI 135; eyes occupy almost all the second quarter of the sides of the head; frontal area wide and rounded posteriorly; scape surpasses occiput by just under one-third its length; propodeal spines short but thick and about as long as two-thirds the basal interval; smooth and shiny, sides of mesonotum, propodeum and base of petiole reticulate; with abundant long erect pilosity all over; yellow-red to dull brown-red, anterior of head brown-black
West Africa & Congo Basin - corticicola
-- {Pheidole minima major}
Antennal scapes almost reaching occipital border;
type TL 2.1 mm (Mayr)
ssp faurei TL 2.5-2.7 mm); HL 1.02, HW 0.96, SL 0.48, PW 0.45; CI 94, SI 50
Cameroun major TL ca 3.0 mm, SI 74; red-yellow or brown-yellow (? nkomoana)
. minima
. {Pheidole minima minor}
TL 1.6-1.7 mm, CI 85, SI 135; red-yellow or brown-yellow
This needs further work as type images not available
West Africa & Congo Basin - minima
return to key TL > 3.3 mm
megacephala-subgroup - albidula, foreli, jordanica, maufei, megacephala, mentita, nkomoana (species E), pallidula, rotundata, squalida, and (unseparable beyond this point) picata (may be only known from Madagascar)
50 {Ph species E details}
(TL 2.6-3.1 mm) type TL 3.5 mm, HL 0.95, HW 1.00, SL 0.65, PW 0.43; CI 105, SI 64; frontal carinae reaching posterior quarter of head; eyes more obviously convex; pronotum with more pronounced lateral tubercles; propodeum with sharp lateral margination; abundant long fine pilosity; colour a little darker than megacephala
. nkomoana
. {Pheidole nkomoana minor}
TL 1.8-2.2 mm, HL 0.65, HW 0.59, SL 0.90, PW 0.37; CI 92, SI 150; head narrowed and convex behind with indistinct posterior border; eyes very convex; scape surpasses occiput by about one-third its length; promesonotum weakly convex, with an indistinct promesonotal suture; propodeum dorsum twice as long as declivity; petiole as whole insect elongated relative to megacephala
Congo Basin - nkomoana
-- {Pheidole philippi}
TL 3.5-3.8 mm HL 1.09, HW 1.09, SL 0.54, PW 0.50; CI 100, SI 50; clypeus without a distinct median carina, striations on front of head extending back to mid-point; light chestnut brown
. {Pheidole philippi minor}
TL 1.8-2.0 mm; propodeal spines minute; pale greyish yellow, extremities more brown, gaster more brown (note specimen has a damaged head, colour suggests it is a callow)
Ethiopia - philippi
51 Pheidole kitschneri major
TL ca 3.5 mm, HL 1.08, HW 1.00, SL 0.53, PW 0.38; CI 96, SI 54; frontal carinae short and not forming scrobes, scape not reaching posterior third of head; promesonotum smoothly convex without any impression or welt, truncate behind and margined on each side; sculpturation limited to anterior striations on head and a few striations and reticulations on lateral propodeum (minor similar); erect pilosity yellowish sparse on body and absent from tibiae and scapes; brownish-yellow, legs and antennae dirty yellow
. Pheidole kitschneri minor
TL 2.5 mm, HL 0.56, HW 0.53, SL 0.57, PW 0.32; CI 92, SI 114; head oval-rectangular, mandibles dentate, striate near the base; clypeus without a carina, feebly emarginate; mesonotum with two small ridges behind; propodeum subdentate; sculpturation limited to anterior striations on head and a few striations and reticulations on lateral propodeum; erect pilosity yellowish sparse on body and absent from tibiae and scapes; brownish-yellow, legs and antennae dirty yellow
South Africa - kitschneri
-- xxx 58
52 {Pheidole maufei}
TL 4.0-4.3 mm, HL 1.47, HW 1.25, SL 1.0, PW 0.56; CI 84, SI 80; head relatively long & narrow, sides near straight; with relatively long narrow propodeal spines; head and alitrunk dull with fairly close reticulation, on head latter overlaid with coarse rugose reticulation; pilosity yellowish, pubescence sparse to nil on body, long oblique on appendages; dark yellowish-brown to brownish-red
. {Pheidole maufei minor}
TL 2.6-3.0 mm, HL 0.69, HW 0.54, SL 1.04, PW 0.38; CI 76, SI 188; postpetiole with distinctive pyriform shape; head and alitrunk dull with fairly close reticulation, on head latter overlaid with coarse rugose reticulation, middle of vertex shiny; pilosity yellowish, pubescence sparse to nil on body, long oblique on appendages; dark yellowish-brown to brownish-red
Major and minor seemingly unique os key placement by default
Zimbabwe - maufei
-- Head near square with CI 100
53 {Pheidole albidula}
TL 4.0-4.5 mm; HL 1.44, HW 1.56, SL 0.78, PW 0.67; CI 103, SI 50; uniquely with posterior border of basal two segments of gaster having a row of triangular depressed tubercles, each giving rise to a long hair; sides of head more convex than megacephala and occiput more deeply scalloped, frontal carinae slightly longer than the scape and with weak scrobe; head with frontal striations reaching three-fifths point of face, most of alitrunk and pedicel finely reticulo-punctate, some transverse irregular rugae on pronotal dorsum; most of body pale rust yellow, head and scape darker, posterior of gaster and most of legs whitish
. albidula
. {Pheidole albidula minor}
TL ca 3 mm, HL 0.67, HW 0.60, SL 0.86, PW 0.34; CI 85, SI 165; less elongated; the illustrated specimens were associated with majors and are darker than the type description of generally very pale; most of body pale rust yellow, head and scape darker, posterior of gaster and most of legs whitish
Type: TL ca 2.7 mm, HL 0.67, HW 0.57, SL ?, PW 0.32; CI 85, SI ca 130
Cameroun & Zare - albidula
-- Border of two basal segments of gaster without tubercles; head widest at about two-thirds of length 60
-- Pheidole escherichii
TL 4.5- 5.0 mm; HL 1.78, HW 1.72, SL 1.17, PW 0.62; CI 95, SI 61; head with distinctive trapezoidal shape in full face view; head with distinctive reticulate sculpturation; scapes reaching hind-third of head; alitrunk narrow and slender; proportions of head and alitrunk like in pallidula and sinaitica; propodeal teeth small; postpetiole twice as wide as petiole, laterally blunt; pilosity as in caffra; mostly matt and somewhat punctate; brownish-red, appendages brown, antennae dull yellow; related to aurivilli
. escherichii
. Pheidole escherichii minor
TL 2.5-2.8 mm, HL 0.72, HW 0.66, SL 0.81, PW 0.39; CI 89, SI 132; head a long oval longer than wide; antennal insertions with a distinct narrow margin; scapes surpass occiput by about two-fifths their length; narrow nuchal collar present; mesonotum with two transverse ridges; brown-yellow, head and hindleg brown, gaster darker; somewhat similar to aurivilli
Ethiopia - escherichii
-- Pheidole scabriuscula minor
Major unknown
Minor TL ca 3.2 mm, HL 0.81, HW 0.67, SL 0.97, PW 0.42; CI 86, SI 150; PPI (postpetiole width over postpetiole length) 125
Kenya - scabriuscula
-- Head in full face view with anterior and posterior margins about equal in width
54 {Pheidole megacephala face}Largest, as a range of sizes appears to be fairly common, head with only shallow occipital scalloping; in profile occiput somewhat flattened 55
-- {Pheidole pallidula}Head with deep occipital scalloping; in profile occiput smoothly convex 56
55 {Ph megacephala details}
TL 3.5-4.5 mm variable, HL 1.50, HW 1.50, SL 0.62, PW 0.60; CI 100, SI 41; promesonotum profile quite a high dome; propodeal spines acute and sharp but distinct; postpetiole profile with distinct angular ventral process
. megacephala
. {Pheidole megacephala minor}
TL ca 2.5 mm, HL 0.67, HW 0.58, SL 0.68, PW 0.39; CI 86, SI 120; shiny, with only sculpturation on mesonotum, propodeum and petiole, all of which are densely spiculate; red-brown, gaster darker, appendages lighter.
Pan-African tramp - megacephala
-- {Pheidole jordanica}
TL 3.7-4.0 mm; HL 1.70, HW 1.58, SL , PW 0.52; CI 97, SI 70, EI 22; funiculus segments 2-5 length = width; eyes twice as big as pallidula, head striated less far back so that the scape reaches beyond the striations, clypeus with a weak median that is not raised; postpetiole profile almost circular; (probably not sub-Saharan)
. jordanica
. {Pheidole jordanica minor}
TL ca 2.5 mm, HL 0.64, HW 0.52, SL 0.78, PW 0.35; CI 80, SI 141; head much paler; legs much longer and distinct groove between pro-and mesonotum (probably not from sub-Saharan)
North Africa & Sudan - jordanica
return to key Head with quite deep occipital scalloping --
56 Base colour orange-brown
-- Base colour brownish-black
57 {Pheidole squalida}
TL 3.5 mm; HL 1.08, HW 1.04, SL 0.60, PW 0.32; CI 96, SI 56, OI 12; head with quite strong longitudinal striations reaching the occiput; other than striations head, like most of body smooth and shiny, anterior pronotum, sides of propodeum and pedicel superficially reticulo-punctate; whole of body with long fawn hairs; brown yellow, centre of head and apical border of mandibles brown, anterior half of gaster pale yellow rest brown black
. squalida
. {Pheidole squalida minor}
TL 2.2 mm, HL 0.54, HW 0.47, SL 0.59, PW 0.32; CI 88, SI 115; head ovoid, semi-circular occiput; front area an isoceles triangle extending quite far back between the frontal carinae; eyes set about the mid-point; scape surpassing occiput by about one-fifth its length; promesonotum profile a low regular curve, from above lozenge-shaped with strongly rounded sides; propodeum dorsum flat with anteriorly oblique slope out of the metanotal groove, declivity concave only one-quarter the length of the dorsum, spines as long as two-thirds their interval and often slightly curved anteriorly; mesonotum punctuate as in a powder; abundant long fine pilosity; clear brownish yellow, head darker, mandibles antennae and legs yellow; gaster dirty yellow in front passing to brownish-black behind
West Africa & Congo Basin - squalida
-- {Pheidole tristis
TL 4.0-4.5 mm; HL 1.44, HW 1.44, SL 0.72, PW 0.54; CI 100 SI 50-55 OI 12; frontal carinae reaching the mid-point of the face and weakly divergent; mandibles quite large and heavy but with a thin inner, masticatory margin; two basal teeth and two sharp apical teeth; sculptured basally with rugae but dorsally with fine striations and distinctive minute hair pits giving rise to an abundance of short, thickish decumbent hairs; propodeum dorsum with sharp lateral margins and a distinct longitudinal groove which widens from front to back;dark red-brown, with the gaster and mandibles darker
. cicatricosa
. {Pheidole cicatricosa minor
TL ca 2.3 mm, HL 0.66, HW 0.55, SL 0.69, PW 0.33; CI 87, SI 120, OI 28,  MI 36 , PI 60; head a short rectangle with the sides very weakly convex, posterior angles broad and evenly rounded, the occiput straight; with a very narrow nuchal collar; mandibles moderately long, with a mixture of minute teeth and quite coarse teeth on the masticatory margin; and two larger apical teeth; anterior margin of clypeus quite strongly convex, without a median or any other carinae; with only four forward facing, fine long hairs
North Africa & Mali - cicatricosa
58 Pheidole mentita major
TL 4.0-4.2 mm, HL 1.52, HW 1.52, SL 0.90, PW 0.62; CI 100, SI 59; cf aurivilli, dorsum of propodeum twice as long as wide; matt, head more densely rugo-reticulose than aurivilli; colour reddish brown, postpetiole and gaster brownish black, extremities lighter yellowish or rust
. mentita
. Pheidole mentita minor
TL 2.7-3.0 mm, HL 0.73, HW 0.60, SL 0.87, PW 0.35; CI 85, SI 137; pro-mesonotum separated by distinct suture; metanotal groove deep; propodeal spines divergent and raised, declivity vertical shorter than dorsum; gaster narrow, smooth at the base; head superficially puncturate, genae with rugae, whole of alitrunk apart from pronotum dorsum densely puncturate and matt; reddish brown, postpetiole and gaster brownish black, extremities lighter yellowish or rust
West Africa - mentita
-- {Pheidole foreli major}
TL 4.5-5.1 mm, HL 1.64, HW 1.58, SL 0.83, PW 0.58; CI 96, SI 55; striations on front of head reach back to about 2/3, occiput smooth and shiny; colour piceous, appendages lighter; covered in quite abundant, long fine hairs, legs and scapes distinctly bristly
. {Pheidole foreli minor}
TL 2.8-3.0 mm, HL 0.75, HW 0.75, SL 0.75, PW 0.50; CI 100, SI 100; shining, no pro-mesonotal suture; mesothorax and propodeum lightly rugo-reticulate; dark brown to piceous, appendages lighter
South Africa - foreli

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Genus Pheidole Introduction

Contents MYRMICINAE Introduction
2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2013, 2014 - Brian Taylor CBiol FSB FRES
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