Contents The Ants of Africa
Nigeria - ant species found on cocoa in 1974-76 (B Taylor and staff)

Adapted from pages 182-3 of EPIDEMIOLOGY OF PHYTOPHTHORA ON COCOA IN NIGERIA - Final Report of the International Black Pod Research Project (1981). APPENDIX 2 - Ant Species Recorded on Cocoa Trees in Western Nigeria - B. Taylor.

In alphabetical order. Present (2004) nomenclature according to B. Bolton (pers. comm.) and my own perusal of historical source literature. Bracketed names were those used in my ant guides (1976, 1978, 1979, 1980a, 1980b) and/or in Taylor (1977) and Taylor & Adedoyin (1978). Dominants in bold font.

Aenictus asantei (rotundatus/sp undet.) - rarely climbs cocoa trees while foraging

Anochetus africanus - sometimes found nesting in debris in jorquette
Anochetus fuliginosus (sp. 1) - sometimes found nesting in debris in jorquette
Anochetus pellucidus - sometimes found nesting in debris in jorquette

Anoplolepis tenella (Plagiolepis sp. T) - found once on cocoa at Akure, Ondo State

Atopomyrmex crypteroceroides - on cocoa, at Awuje Bale (Iwo) and Araromi, by Eguagie (1971)
Atopomyrmex mocquerysi - uncommon, nests in dead wood on trees

Camponotus acvapimensis - dominant on about 4.5% of cocoa, nests in soil, tends Homoptera, builds soil tents, black pod associated with tents
Camponotus brutus - occasional forager on cocoa, nests in dead wood on trees
Camponotus barbarossa (Camponotus micispa) - rare; possibly actually Camponotus chrysurus
Camponotus flavomarginatus - fairly common, nests in soil, tends Homoptera, suspected of tent building.
Camponotus haereticus (Camponotus foraminosus dorsalis) - fairly common, up to 1.5% of cocoa trees, tends Homoptera, nests in dead wood including mummified pods on trees
Camponotus maculatus - fairly common, at CRIN on 2.5% of cocoa trees, tends Homoptera
Camponotus vividus - on 1.2% of cocoa trees, sub-dominant with Crematogaster africana, nests in dead wood on large trees (not cocoa).
Camponotus (Myrmacrhaphe) sp. T - occasionally on cocoa, tends Homoptera.

Cataulacus egenus - uncommon, nests in dead wood on trees.
Cataulacus guineensis - on up to 3.5% of cocoa trees, often associated with Oecophylla longinoda, nests in dead wood on trees, tends Homoptera
Cataulacus mocquerysi - found once on cocoa at Olukunle and earlier at CRIN
Cataulacus moloch (Cataulacus brevisetosus) - occasionally seen, tends Homoptera.
Cataulacus vorticus - rare, will nest under bark of cocoa trees.

Cerapachys foreli (Phyracaces langi) - rare

Crematogaster many species -
Dominants with one or other on 10-12% of cocoa trees, construct large carton nests on shade trees-
Crematogaster (Atopogyne) africana
Crematogaster (Atopogyne) depressa
Crematogaster (Atopogyne) clariventris - dominant on 8% of cocoa trees, builds carton nests on cocoa, tends Homoptera.
Crematogaster (Sphaerocrema) zavattarii (Crematogaster nigeriensis ?gabonensis) - dominant on about 2% of cocoa trees, nest of carton under and around cankerous bark, tends Homoptera, constructs carton tents.
Several small species are sometimes found in association with O. longinoda most abundant, on up to 1% of cocoa trees are -
Crematogaster (Sphaerocrema) bequaerti
Crematogaster (Orthocrema) muralti (Crematogaster (Orthocrema) sp. 1)
Crematogaster (Crematogaster) painei (Crematogaster sp. A1)
- all tend Homoptera, the latter two build tents, sp. 1 of debris (may be black pod associated) and sp. A1 of carton
Other species occasionally found tending Homoptera are -
Crematogaster (Atopogyne) buchneri
Crematogaster (Sphaerocrema) gambiensis - which builds debris tents
Crematogaster (Sphaerocrema) kneri - also builds debris tents
Crematogaster (Sphaerocrema) striatula - (much more common on shrub vegetation);
Crematogaster (Crematogaster) acis (formerly Crem. (Crem.) sp. 2)
Also seen but rarely are -
Crematogaster (Crematogaster) gerstaeckeri (sjostedti)
Crematogaster (Sphaerocrema) wellmani (boxi)
Crematogaster (Crematogaster) adedoyini new species (Crematogaster sp. 3)
Crematogaster (Atopogyne) mottazi (Crematogaster (Atopogyne) sp. A)
Crematogaster (Crematogaster) stigmata (Crematogaster (Cr.) sp. C/F409)
Crematogaster (Crematogaster) excisa (Crematogaster (Cr.) sp. T)
Crematogaster (Decacrema) costeboriensis - (Crematogaster (Decacrema) sp. T)

Hypoponera cammerunensis - sometimes found nesting in soil/debris in crevices of cocoa trunks.
Hypoponera lea - sometimes found nesting in soil/debris in crevices of cocoa trunks

Lepisiota guineensis (Lepisiota sp. undet. (1) or Acantholepis capensis) - dominant on 9-10% of cocoa trees, tends Homoptera, builds soil tents.
Lepisiota gerardi (Lepisiota sp. undet (2) or (Acantholepis sp. (spinosior) - uncommon, tends Homoptera
Lepisiota validiuscula (Lepisiota (Acantholepis) sp. T) - occasionally seen, tends Homoptera, builds vegetable tents
Lepisiota cacozela (Lepisiota (Acantholepis) sp. T & T) - fairly common sub-dominant with Crematogaster africana, on 5-10% of cocoa trees, tends Homoptera, constructs debris tents

Nesomyrmex angulatus (Leptothorax sp.T) - rare, will nest in crevices of cocoa trunks

Meranoplus inermis (Meranoplus nanus, sp. T) - occasionally found tending Homoptera

Monomorium bicolor - found tending Homoptera;
Monomorium mayri (Monomorium sp. A)
Monomorium destructor (Monomorium sp. G) - found tending Homoptera, not too difficult to find
Monomorium vaguum (Diplomorium lujae) - moderately common, on 0.1-0.2% of cocoa trees, tends Homoptera, may build or utilise tents

Myrmicaria fumata (Myrmicaria striata) - moderately common at CRIN, on 0.1-1.0% of cocoa trees, but less common elsewhere in cocoa region, nests in open ground, tends Homoptera, builds soil tents, black pod associated

Odontomachus troglodytes (Odontomachus haematodus) - can be dominant on 1.0-2.5% of cocoa trees but only on lower trunk, nests in soil or dead wood on ground, tends Homoptera, builds soil tents, black pod associated

Oecophylla longinoda - dominant, commonest species, on up to 33% of cocoa trees, tends Stictococcids, builds nests by weaving leaves with larval silk

Prenolepis-group species five species observed on cocoa -
Paraparatrechina albipes (Paratrechina sp. 2)
Paratrechina grisoni (Paratrechina sp. 3)
Paratrechina boltoni (Paratrechina sp. 1)
Paraparatrechina subtilis (Paratrechina sp. T)
Paraparatrechina minima new species
- all tend Homoptera and all thought to build tents of soil or debris; zelotypa and grisoni on 0.1-1.0% of cocoa trees

Pheidole megacephala with a melanistic form, Pheidole sp. T - common dominant species, on 12-14% of cocoa nests in soil or in jorquette, avid tender of Homoptera, builds tents of soil or debris, black pod associated.
Pheidole nigeriensis (Pheidole sp. B or Pheidole minima)- on 0.1% of cocoa trees, builds tents of soil or plant debris -
Other Pheidole species on cocoa are :
Pheidole costauriensis (Pheidole crassinoda as pale variant Pheidole sp. T)
Pheidole speculifera
Pheidole crinensis new species (Pheidole sp. A)
Pheidole stephensi new species (Pheidole sp. E)
Pheidole impressifrons (Pheidole sp. F)
all of which tend Homoptera. The last two build tents of soil or debris

Plagiolepis brunni - an abundant species (on over 7% of cocoa trees) but of no apparent influence in determining mosaic structure, nests in dead twig ends, tends Homoptera, utilises (may build) tents
Plagiolepis alluaudi (Plagiolepis sp. T) - uncommon, tends Homoptera

Platythyrea conradti - moderately common, on 1% or more of cocoa trees, but always in small numbers
Platythyrea modesta - uncommon

Polyrhachis militaris - on about 1% of cocoa trees, arboreal, role within mosaic unknown, a large species but colonies small
Other Polyrhachis species occasionally seen on cocoa are -
Polyrhachis decemdentata
Polyrhachis laboriosa
Polyrhachis monista
Polyrhachis weissi

Pyramica (Smithistruma) ninda (Miccostruma mandibularis and Miccostruma sp. T) - seen once only on cocoa flowers
Pyramica (Serrastruma) simoni (lotti, Serrastruma species T) - rare, has been found nesting in dead wood on a cocoa tree

Four species of Strumigenys -
Strumigenys cacaoensis
Strumigenys pallestes
Strumigenys petiolata
Strumigenys rufobrunea
have been found nesting in soil in crevices on cocoa trees but all are rare

Tapinoma lugubre (Tapinoma sp. T or Technomyrmex detorquens) - can be found on up to 5% of cocoa trees but usually not so common, can be associated with Cr. depressa, tends Homoptera, ground nesting
Other Tapinoma species are rarely found nesting under bark on cocoa trees -
Tapinoma new species T1 (Tapinoma sp. T)
Tapinoma new species T2 (Tapinoma sp. T)

Four species of Technomyrmex are found occasionally on cocoa trees:
Technomyrmex andrei (Technomyrmex species T) nests in soil occasionally seen tending aphids on cocoa, also recorded constructing a soil tent over mealybugs, but not associated with black pod disease. Tents were found at CRIN and Oloruntedo, near Ondo
Technomyrmex moerens (Technomyrmex sp. T) tends Homoptera
all nest in dead wood on the tree;
Technomyrmex nigriventris (Technomyrmex sp. IK)
Technomyrmex sycorax (Technomyrmex sp. T)

Terataner elegans (Terataner sp. T) - found twice on cocoa, once seen in a debris tent on a cocoa flower

Tetramorium aculeatum (Macromischoides aculeatus) - abundant, dominant on up to 15% of cocoa trees, characteristic 'felt' nest on underside of, or between, leaves, tends Homoptera
Tetramorium species - several other species sometimes can be found on cocoa trees but all have soil or dead wood nesting habits, these all tend Homoptera and are :-
Tetramorium ataxium (Tetramorium sp.T)
Tetramorium lucayanum
Tetramorium simillimum (Tetramorium sp.F)
Tetramorium zambezium (Tetramorium delagoense) (Tetramorium sp. M)
Others seen on cocoa are -
Tetramorium quadridentatum (Tetramorium sp. K and sp. nr. K) - which has nest specific colour variants and which is not infrequently found nesting in dead pods and debris filled crevices
Tetramorium minimum (Triglyphothrix sp. T) rare
Tetramorium wadje (Tetramorium sp. T) - found once only

Tetraponera anthracina - may be found on up to 1.5% of cocoa trees but little is known of its biology, nests in dead wood on trees but colonies small and ants forage singly
Other Tetraponera species recorded but rarely on cocoa are -
Tetraponera ophthalmica
Tetraponera lepida (Tetraponera species)

Contents return to cocoa mosaics page
2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 - Brian Taylor CBiol FSB FRES
11, Grazingfield, Wilford, Nottingham, NG11 7FN, U.K.

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